What is your preference IPS or IAS

Indian Police Service - Indian Police Service

One of the All India Services
This article is about the civil service, the Indian Police Service. For the police in India, see Law Enforcement in India.

The indian police service ( IPS ) is a public service of All India Services. It replaced the Indian Imperial Police in 1948, a year after India gained independence from the British Raj.

In addition to the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Forest Service (IFS), the IPS is one of the All India Services - its officials can be employed by both the Union government and the individual states.

The service commands and directs the state and union territory police forces, the Central Armed Forces (BSF, SSB, CRPF, CISF and ITBP), the National Security Forces (NSG), the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) and the National Investigative Agency (NIA) , Intelligence Bureau (IB), Research and Analysis Wing (R & AW), Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).


There is no alternative to this administrative system ... the union will go, you will not have a united India if you do not have a good all India service that has the independence to express its opinion, that has the feeling of security, that you have will hold your work ... If you do not take this course then you are not following this constitution. Replace something else ... these people are the instrument. Remove them and all I see is a picture of the chaos across the country.

British India

Jamadar, Policeman and Sergeant - NCO positions were opened to Indians through 1920
Indian Police Medal awarded in 1940

In 1861 the British Raj led the in 1861 Indian Councils Act . The law created the basis for a modern and professionalized police bureaucracy in India. A new police cadre was named Superior Police Services introduced who later became known as the Indian Imperial Police. The highest rank in the service was the inspector general for each province. The rank of Inspector General has been equated and classified with Brigadier and similar ranks in the Indian Armed Forces, according to the Central Priority Order of 1937.

In the years 1902-03, a Police Commission for police reforms was set up under Sir Andrew Fraser and Lord Curzon. The appointment of Indians at officer level to the police was recommended. Indians could only rise to the ranks of the police inspector, the position of senior non-commissioned officer. However, they were not part of the Indian Imperial Police.

From 1920 the Indian Imperial Police was open to the Indians and the entrance examination for the service was carried out in both India and England.

A stamp from 1999 for the 50th anniversary of IPS

Prior to independence, high-ranking officers of the Imperial Police (IP) were appointed by the Secretary of State on the basis of a competitive examination. The first open public service exam for entry into the service was held in England in June 1893, and the top ten candidates were appointed probation officers with the Indian (Imperial) Police Force. It is not possible to pinpoint an exact date that the Indian police force was officially launched. Around 1907 the Secretary of State was instructed to wear the letters "IP" on his epaulets to distinguish them from the other officials whom the Secretary of State had not recruited through examination. In this sense, 1907 could be seen as a starting point. 1948, one year after India's independence; The imperial police were replaced by IPS.

Modern India

The modern Indian police service has been accredited Article 312 (2) created in Part XIV of the Constitution of India.

According to media reports, there is a massive shortage of IPS officials in India, amounting to almost 19% to 22% of the sanctioned strength.

Medals and Orders

Although this is a very small cadre, many IPS officers have been awarded the highest gallantry awards (Ashok Chakra, Kirti Chakra). The current National Security Advisor in India who was an IPS officer was awarded the Kirti Chakra for his valiant actions during Operation Blue Star. While typically employed as a high-level supervisor, it is not uncommon to see even three-star, general-ranked IPS officers actively participating in law and order maintenance. IPS officers have been sent to various UN missions and have been awarded the United Nations medal. Many exceptional IPS officers have been awarded Padma prizes from time to time.

Goal setting

Indian President Ram Nath Kovind with Indian police officers at Rashtrapathi Bhavan in New Delhi, 2018.

The First Police Commission, appointed on August 17, 1865, contained detailed guidelines for the desired police system in India and defined the police as a government department for maintaining order, enforcing the law, and preventing and detecting criminal offenses. The Indian Police Service is not an armed force itself, but a service that provides leaders and commanders with the personnel of the State Police and the entire Indian Central Police. Its members are the senior police officers. Over time, the objectives of the Indian Police Service have been updated and redefined. The current roles and functions of an Indian Police Officer are as follows:

  • Fulfilling border responsibility tasks in the areas of maintaining public peace and order, crime prevention, investigation and detection, information gathering, VIP security, counterterrorism, border police, railway police, anti-smuggling, drug trafficking, economic crime, corruption in public life , Disaster management, enforcement of socio-economic laws, biodiversity and protection of environmental laws, etc.
  • Leadership and management of Indian intelligence services such as Research and Analysis Wing (R & AW), Intelligence Bureau (IB), Central Investigation Bureau (CBI), Criminal Investigation (CID), etc., Indian Law Enforcement, Civil and Armed Forces in all states and union territories.
  • Leadership and command of various Central Armed Forces (CAPF), which include the Central Police Organizations (CPO), such as the Border Security Force (BSF), the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) and the National Security Guard ( NSG), Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), vigilance organizations and Indian law enforcement agencies.
  • To lead and command the force with courage, sincerity, commitment and a strong sense of service to people.
  • Make an effort to instill values ​​and norms in the police forces under your command that would help them serve the people better.
  • Embed integrity at the highest level, sensitivity to the aspirations of people in a rapidly changing social and economic environment, respect for human rights, a broad liberal perspective of law and justice and a high standard of professionalism.


The peaked cap that Indian police officers wear as part of their uniform code.

IPS officers are recruited from UPSC's public service audit. They are also sponsored by State Police Services and DANIPS. Currently, however, the hiring of employees with limited competitive scrutiny has been suspended.


The training of the recruits of the IPS officers is carried out at the National Police Academy Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in Hyderabad. The authorized cadre of the Indian Police Service is 4,920 (3,270 direct recruitment posts and 1,650 advertising posts). The Civilian List of IPS Officials is an updated (annual) list from the Ministry of Interior of India, detailing the posting details of all IPS Officials in India. This civil list can be obtained from the MHA website. It enables the search for an IPS officer based on his name, his batch or his cadre.

State cadres

Cadre Allocation Policy

The Union government announced a new recruiting policy for All India Services in August 2017, touted as a policy to ensure the national integration of the bureaucracy as civil servants and to ensure the All India nature of the services. Under the new policy, the existing 26 cadres in the new policy have been divided into five zones by the Ministry of Personnel and Training of the Government of India.

According to the new guideline, a candidate must first make his or her choice in descending order of preference from the different zones. Then the candidate must provide a squad preference from each preferred zone. The candidate then specifies his or her second squad preference for each preferred zone. The process continues until the candidate indicates a preference for all cadres. The zone / squad preference remains in the same order and no change is allowed.

The officials continue to work in the cadre they receive or report to the Indian government.

Zone Squad
Zone-I AGMUT (Arunachal Pradesh - Goa - Mizoram and Union Territories, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Rajasthan and Haryana.
Zone-II Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha.
Zone III Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
Zone IV West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam - Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura and Nagaland.
Zone-V Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

Old squad assignment guidelines

Until 2008 there was no preference system for state cadres by the candidates; If the candidates were not included in the insider vacancy of their home countries, they were assigned to different countries in alphabetical order, starting with the letters A, H, M, T for the respective year. For example, if the list starts with "A" in a given year, it means that the first candidate on the list goes to the Ih squad of Andhra Pradesh, the next to Bihar, and then to Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, etc. in alphabetical order . The next year the list starts with 'H' for either Haryana or Himachal Pradesh (if it started from Haryana on the previous occasion when everything started from 'H' then this time it would start from Himachal Pradesh). This highly complicated system, in vogue since the mid-1980s, had ensured that officers from various states were deployed across India.

The permanent state cadre system has also resulted in wide variations in the types of occupational exposure of officers when we compare officers in small and large, and developed and backward states. Changes in government are permitted due to marriage to an All India Service Officer of another government or in other exceptional circumstances. The officer can go on deputation to his home cadre for a limited time, after which he must, without exception, return to the cadre assigned to him.

From 2008 to 2017, IPS officials were assigned to state cadres when they began their service. There was a cadre for every Indian state, with the exception of two joint cadres: Assam - Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh - Goa - Mizoram - Union Territories (AGMUT). The "insider-outsider ratio" (ratio of officials posted in their home countries) is maintained at 1: 2, with a third of direct recruits being "insiders" from the same country. The rest were hired as outsiders according to the "list" in states other than their home states according to their preference.

Career advancement

Pay structure of the Indian police service

Ranks and badges

Although the uniform standard color is khaki, the ranks, posts, and titles of IPS officers vary from state to state as law and order are a state matter. However, the following pattern is generally observed.

Rows of IPS officers

IPS officials are either appointed on the basis of a civil service examination or promoted by state officials. The vacancy in an IPS squad is determined on the basis of the vacancy in a rank of police superintendent. As a result, there are two grades of SP rank. These are Levels 11 and 12 according to the Seventh Pay Commission. As a result, IPS officers remain at the SP rank until their 13th year, after which they can be promoted to Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP). The ASP rank is the junior rank of an IPS state cadre. As a result, new recruits at IPS are made redundant (for training purposes only for two years and then for one year) as deputy superintendent of the police until officially appointed as superintendent of the area police (when) they receive payment from Level 11 and Level 12) and as a responsible district (if they receive level 12 pay) (only in non-metropolitan districts). When the officers are promoted to the rank of SSP, some of them are appointed as metropolitan districts.

rank Director of the Secret Service Office (GOI) Director General of the Police Additional Director General of the Police Police Inspector General Deputy Inspector General of the Police Chief Superintendent of Police (Selection Level) Police operations manager Additional superintendent of the police Deputy Superintendent of the Police Deputy Superintendent of the Police (probation rank: 2 years of service) Deputy Superintendent of the Police (probation rank: 1 year of service)
  • Note: Police Commissioner is a post occupied by different rank officers in different locations. For example, it is only held by the DG Rank Officer in Delhi and Mumbai; by additional DG rank officer in Pune, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Guwahati, etc .; from IG rank officer in Gurgaon, Ludhiana, Mysore etc .; from DIG rank officer in Trivandrum, Kochi etc.
Flags (top photo) and stars (bottom photo) on official cars of high-ranking IPS officers according to rank.

Reforms and concerns

Reform committees

The Indian police force is still subject to a colonial police law passed in 1861. The Indian Constitution makes policing a government issue, and therefore state governments are responsible for providing police services to their communities. However, after independence, most passed the 1861 Act unchanged, while others passed laws based heavily on the 1861 Act.

Repeated serious incidents (most recently the gang's rape in Delhi in 2012) showed that the police failed to uphold the rule of law.

The need for police reform in India has long been recognized. There has been nearly 30 years of debate and discussion by government-created committees and commissions on the road to police reform, but India remains faced with an outdated and old-fashioned law as report after report is stirring dust on the unenforced government bookshelves. Many police reform committees have recommended comprehensive reforms of the police system combined with systematic accountability.

National Police Commission (1977-81)

The National Police Commission was the first committee set up by the Indian government to report on policing. The National Police Commission appeared in 1979 as part of a Post-Emergency India and submitted eight reports between 1979 and 1981, including a Model Police Act.

Ribeiro Committee (1998-99)

In 1996, two former senior police officers filed a public interest litigation (PIL) with the Supreme Court asking the court to instruct governments to implement the recommendations of the National Police Commission. The Supreme Court ordered the government to set up a committee to review the Commission's recommendations, and so the Ribeiro Committee was formed. The committee, headed by JF Ribeiro, a former police chief, sat in 1998 and 1999 and produced two reports.

Padmanabhaiah Committee (2000)

In 2000, the government set up a third police reform committee, this time headed by a former union interior minister, K. Padmanabhaiah. This committee published its report in the same year.

Malimath Committee Report (2003)

The report of the Malimath Committee presented in March 2003 very precisely laid the basis for a restructured and realigned police system. The committee noted in its report that the success of the whole process of criminal justice administration depends entirely on the proper functioning of the police organization, especially at the investigative stage. In addition to investigating criminal offenses, the police are also obliged to maintain law and order.

Soli Sorabjee Committee (2005)

In 2005 the government set up a group to work out a new police law for India. It was headed by Soli Sorabjee (former Attorney General). The committee submitted a model police law to the union government in late 2006.

Intervention of the Supreme Court (2006)

In 1996, Prakash Singh (former chief of Assam Police and the Police of