How do I correct my speaking skills

linguistic proficiency

Qualitative Aspects of Oral Use

in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages five qualitative aspects have been defined, which are important for the Assessment of language skills are useful. Using the criteria spectrum, correctness, fluency, interaction and coherence, it is possible to qualitatively describe language skills and make them comparable.

Declaration on the oral language skills in the European Framework of Reference:

Sometimes it is desirable to focus attention on a specific range of language levels and categories. If you limit yourself to an excerpt from the levels and categories that are relevant for a specific purpose, you can add further details, i.e. use finer levels and categories. Such detailing makes it possible to relate a number of modules to one another - and of course also to situate them in relation to the common frame of reference.

Instead of creating a profile with reference to the categories of communicative activities, one might also want to assess performance on the basis of aspects of communicative language proficiency that can be derived from these activities. The following grid was designed to assess oral language skills. It focuses on various qualitative aspects of language use.


Common reference levels: Qualitative aspects of oral language use

spectrum
C2Shows a lot of flexibility to formulate thoughts with different linguistic means in order to make finer nuances of meaning clear or to emphasize something, to differentiate or to remove ambiguity. Also has a good knowledge of colloquial and idiomatic expressions.
C1Has a wide range of means of speech from which he / she can choose appropriate language to express himself clearly and appropriately on a wide range of general, scientific, professional or leisure topics without going in what he / she is trying to say to have to restrict.
B +
B2Have a sufficiently wide range of speaking media to be able to speak in clear descriptions or reports on most general subjects and to express their own points of view; does not look for words conspicuously and uses some complex sentence structures.
B1 +
B1Has sufficient linguistic resources to get by; The vocabulary is sufficient to be able to express oneself, albeit sometimes hesitantly and with the help of paraphrases, on topics such as family, hobbies and interests, work, travel and current events.
A2 +
A2Uses elementary sentence structures with memorized phrases, short groups of words and speech formulas in order to exchange limited information in simple everyday situations.
A1Has a very limited repertoire of words and phrases that relate to information about the person and individual concrete situations.



correctness
C2Shows a thorough mastery of the grammar even when using complex linguistic means, even if the attention is required otherwise (e.g. by planning ahead or concentrating on the reactions of others).
C1Maintains a high level of grammatical correctness throughout; Errors are rare, hardly noticeable and are usually corrected themselves.
B +
B2Shows a fairly good command of grammar. Do not make mistakes that lead to misunderstandings and can correct most of your own mistakes.
B1 +
B1Relatively correctly uses a repertoire of common structures and formulas related to more predictable situations.
A2 +
A2Uses some simple structures correctly, but still makes elementary mistakes systematically.
A1Shows limited mastery of a few simple grammatical structures and sentence patterns in a memorized repertoire.



liquid
C2Can express himself spontaneously and with a natural flow of language in lengthy speeches and in doing so circumvent difficulties so smoothly or start anew that the conversation partner hardly notices.
C1Can express himself fluently and spontaneously with almost no effort; only conceptually difficult topics can impair the natural flow of language.
B +
B2Can speak at a fairly steady pace. Even if he / she may hesitate to look for structures or words, there are hardly any noticeably long pauses.
B1 +
B1Can express himself / herself understandably without hesitation, although he / she takes clear breaks to plan or correct utterances grammatically and in the choice of words, especially if he / she speaks freely for longer.
A2 +
A2Can make himself understood in very short speeches, although he / she often stops and has to start over or reformulate.
A1Can use very short, isolated, largely prefabricated utterances; needs a lot of pauses to look for expressions, articulate less familiar words or to solve communication problems.



interaction
C2Can communicate easily and skillfully, whereby he / she also registers and uses means of intonation and non-linguistic means with ease. Can weave his / her own speech into the conversation by naturally speaking, referring to something, making allusions, etc.
C1Can choose a suitable phrase from a readily available repertoire of means of discourse in order to introduce his / her statement appropriately when he / she wants to speak or keep the word, or to skillfully combine his / her contributions with those of other people.
B +
B2Can start conversations, take the role of speaking when appropriate, and end the conversation when he / she wants, although this may not always turn out gracefully. Can contribute to the progress of the conversation in a familiar area by confirming understanding, asking others to speak, etc.
B1 +
B1Can start, keep going and end a simple face-to-face conversation on topics that are familiar or of personal interest. Can repeat parts of what someone said to ensure mutual understanding.
A2 +
A2Can ask and answer questions and respond to simple statements. Can indicate when he / she is understanding, but barely understands enough to keep the conversation going.
A1Can ask questions about the person and give answers to relevant questions. Can communicate easily, but communication depends entirely on repeating, rephrasing, or correcting something more slowly.



coherence
C2Can make coherent, coherent speeches; appropriately uses different means of structuring as well as a wide range of linking means.
C1Can speak clearly, very fluently and in a well-structured manner and shows that he / she has mastered the means of structuring and linking.
B +
B2Can use a limited number of linking means to link his / her utterances into a clear, coherent contribution; longer posts may be a little erratic.
B1 +
B1Can combine a series of short, simple individual elements into a coherent linear expression.
A2 +
A2Can link groups of words using simple connectors such as 'and', 'but' and 'because'.
A1Can link words or phrases using simple connectors such as 'and' or 'then'.