When was the feudal system abolished?

Peasants Liberation

Peasants' liberation: The loosening of the personal and economic dependency of the peasants on a manorial rule took place since the middle of the 18th century, the elimination in 1848. Although there are great differences in the Austrian countries (in North Tyrol and in the mountainous regions of Vorarlberg, the farmers had a lot of freedom) and there was almost no serfdom, Maria Theresia generally moderated robotic services in 1778. In 1781, Joseph II introduced the subordinate criminal patent, the definition of the right of appeal and the robot replacement to make things easier. In 1789 he ordered a tax reform in favor of the peasants, but this was not carried out after his death. The feudal system was only abolished when in the Reichstag of 1848 the Member of Parliament H. Kudlich, who came from Silesia, applied for the abolition of "submission with all rights and obligations arising from it". With a patent signed by Emperor Ferdinand on September 7, 1848, the subservience and the "protective authority" were abolished and the relief of the land by compensation of the previous owners was ordered. In the following years, commissions determined this compensation for the previous landlords (two thirds of the estimated value) and the obligations of the farmers who had now become owners over the course of 40 years. Instead of the rulers, the state had to establish municipalities, district administrations and courts.

The consequences of the exemption were not only positive for the peasants, because the landlord taxes were replaced by taxes from the state, the states and municipalities. The first generation also did not know the market economy conditions. After 1868, many small, barely viable businesses emerged as a result of division, so that the debt increased. Only the following generations were able to avert the decline of the peasant class and create new market organizations through cooperatives.