Who is the Rajyapala of India

Warren Hastings: First Governor of India

Warren Hastings: First Governor of India

Lady Robert is enthusiastic about P. and P. and, as I understand, it was really like that before she knew who wrote it, because of course she now knows. He told her with as much satisfaction as if it were my wish. He didn't tell me that, but he did tell Fanny. And Mr. Hastings! I am very pleased with what such a man writes about it. Henry sent the books to him on his return from Daylesford, but you will hear the letter too. Jane Austen to Cassandra September 15, 1813
Warren Hastings(December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first Governor General of British India from 1773 to 1785. He was charged with corruption in 1787 and acquitted in 1795. He was appointed privy councilor in 1814. Hastings was born in Churchill, Oxfordshire. He attended Westminster School before joining the British East India Company as an employee in 1750. In 1757 he was made a British resident of Murshidabad. He was appointed to the Council of Calcutta in 1761, but was back in England in 1764. In 1769 he returned to India as a member of the Madras Council and was appointed Governor of Bengal in 1772. In 1773 he was appointed the first governor. General of India. In late 1752 or early 1753, George Austen's sister, Philadelphia Austen, was removed from her post, apprenticed to a Milliner, and sent to India to "find a husband". Both George and Philadelphia were orphaned early and raised at the expense of an uncle. Already in her twenties and with no prospect in England, this trip was her last chance to get married. Six months after arriving, she married an elderly surgeon, Tysoe Hancock, who was friends with Warren Hastings. Eight years later a daughter was born in Philadelphia. Was she the product of a long and loveless marriage or, as some rumors of the time claimed, was she Warren Hastings' "natural child"? We may never know for sure, but we do know that years later, Eliza named her only son Hastings and left a financial legacy in Mr. Hastings' will. The Austen family have always felt related to Mr. Hastings, and Jane Austen sent him a copy of Pride and prejudice. During Hastings' time as governor, a great precedent was set as to the methods the British Raj would use in his rule over India. Hastings had great respect for the ancient script of Hinduism and fatefully used the British position on governance to look back on the earliest possible precedent. This enabled the advisers to the Brahmins to shape the law, since no Englishman understood Sanskrit until Sir William Jones; it also emphasized the caste system and other religious frameworks that had been applied somewhat imperfectly, at least in the past few centuries. Thus British influence on the ever-changing social structure of India can largely be characterized as a consolidation of the privileges of the caste system through the influence of the exclusively high-caste scholars through whom the British were advised in forming their laws. These laws also accepted the binary division of the people of Bengal and, more broadly, India in general as either Muslim or Hindu (subject to their own laws). In 1781, Hastings founded Madrasa 'Aliya, which means the higher madrasa, in Calcutta, and shows his relationship with the Muslim population. In addition, in 1784 Hastings supported the establishment of the Bengal Asian Society by the orientalist scholar William Jones, which became a storehouse for information and data about India. With few English people doing the administrative work, and even fewer with the ability to converse in local languages, Hastings was forced to raise income for locals who had no ideological friendship with corporate rule. In addition, at the beginning of his rule he was ideologically committed to the administration by "natives". He believed that European revenue collectors "would open the door to all forms of rape and extortion" because "European manners were violent, especially among the lowly, incompatible with the gentle temperament of the Bengali". The British desire to assert themselves as the sole sovereign led to conflict within this "dual government" of British and Indians. In addition, the unsustainable mining and export of Bengali silver to Britain resulted in a famine from 1769 to 1770 in which an estimated one-third of the population died. The British characterized the collectors as tyrants and blamed them for ruining the province. Some Englishmen continued to be seduced by the opportunities of making massive wealth in India, and as a result became embroiled in corruption and bribery, and Hastings could do little or nothing to prevent this from happening. In fact, in his subsequent impeachment proceedings, unsuccessful arguments were made that he was involved in the widespread exploitation of these newly conquered territories. Hastings resigned in 1784 and returned to England. He was charged with high crimes and misdemeanors by Edmund Burke and Sir Philip Francis, whom he wounded in a duel in India. He was charged in 1787, but the trial, which began in 1788, ended with his acquittal in 1795. Hastings spent most of his fortune on his defense, although the East India Company contributed towards the end of the trial. The city of Hastings, New Zealand, and the suburb of Hastings, Victoria, Australia, in Melbourne, were both named after him.


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