How does federalism work in Russia
The state order
"THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION - RUSSIA is a democratic, federal constitutional state with a republican form of government," says Article 1 of the Constitution. According to the constitution, the bearers of sovereignty and the sole source of power in the Russian Federation are its multinational people. "The people exercise their power directly and through the organs of state authority and the organs of local self-government."
Today's Russia is a republic. The president, who is the head of state, has broad powers. It is precisely he who determines, in accordance with the Constitution and federal laws, the main directions of domestic and foreign policy.
Another essential feature of the Russian state is its federal structure. The principles of the structure of the federation are: state integrity and unity, equality of subjects, delimitation of the objects of competence and powers between the federal and regional authorities.
In the constitution, Russia is also defined as a social state, the policy of which aims to create conditions that guarantee a decent life and free human development. The organs of power take on the guarantee of a certain standard of living for the citizens as well as the satisfaction of their material and spiritual needs to an extent that corresponds to the possibilities of the state. This means that one of the most important areas of government activity is the social sphere. This includes, in particular, occupational health and safety, the establishment of a guaranteed minimum wage, support for the family, motherhood, fatherhood and childhood, and the payment of state pensions to the elderly.
Finally, Russia is described in the constitution as a secular state: "No religion can be established as a state or binding religion" and "the religious associations are separate from the state and equal before the law".
The current constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted by referendum on December 12, 1993. In contrast to the earlier basic laws, the 1993 constitution recognizes ideological and political pluralism, the multi-party system and the variety of forms of property.
The amendments to the Constitution are made in the form of a federal constitutional law, which is deemed to have been passed when it is approved by a majority of at least 3/4 of the total number of members of the Federation Council and at least 2/3 of the total number of members of the State Duma is approved.
The principle of their direct effect enshrined in the constitution is of great importance. This means that no court or other state body is entitled to waive the application of the constitutional norms with reference to the lack of explanatory or detailed laws.
The 1993 constitution also made an important step towards perfecting the federal structure of Russia. The constitution strictly delimited the competences and powers of the federal and regional authorities and their common areas of competence. The principle of the primacy of federal law was established.
The President, who does not belong directly to any of the branches of state power, ensures their coordinated functioning and cooperation. The rights of the president in relation to the executive powers are particularly important. With the consent of the State Duma, it appoints the chairman of the government, appoints the vice-chairmen and federal ministers on the proposal of the chairman of the government and dismisses them. The President has the right to preside over meetings of the government, decide on the resignation of the government, can revoke resolutions and orders of the government if they conflict with the constitution, federal laws and its decrees. In the cases determined by the Constitution, the President has the right to suspend the validity of acts of the executive bodies of the subjects of the Russian Federation until this question is decided by the competent court.
The Constitution gives the President a number of powers related to the functioning of the legislative and judicial organs. So the President arranges the elections to the State Duma, dissolves them in the cases and according to the procedure provided in the Constitution, signs and publishes the federal laws, has the right of suspensive veto, ie he can reject a law, whatever requires its new examination in the chambers of the Federal Assembly. The President submits bills to the State Duma, has the power to approach the Constitutional Court with a request about the conformity of the trial of the subject normative acts with the Constitution and a request about the interpretation of the Constitution. It can make proposals for the review of the constitution and for amendments to the constitution.
The President determines the main directions of foreign policy and can sign international treaties. He is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Russia, appoints and dismisses the High Command of the Armed Forces, forms and heads the Security Council - a constitutional body that makes decisions of the President on issues of securing the protection of the vital interests of the individual, society and the state from internal affairs and prepared for external dangers. He confirms the military doctrine of the Russian Federation.
The President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir V. Putin, was elected on March 4, 2012 and sworn in on May 7, 2012. According to the latest constitutional amendment, the president will be elected for 6 years from 2012 onwards.
The Government of the Russian Federation is an organ of state power and exercises executive power in the country in accordance with the constitution adopted in 1993. The government is a collegial body and manages the unified system of executive power in the country within the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and in relation to the subjects of joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation.
The government consists of the chairman of the government, his deputies and the federal ministers. The chairman of the government is appointed by the President of the Russian Federation with the consent of the State Duma.
The permanent organ of the government is its presidium. The Presidium of the Government consists of: the President of the Government, the first Deputies to the President of the Government, the Deputies to the President of the Government and a number of federal ministers. The chairman of the government defines the main directions of government activity and organizes its work.
The functions of government are many.
On May 8, 2012, Dmitry A. Medvedev was appointed Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation.
The Federal Assembly
The representative and legislative body of the Russian Federation is its parliament - the Federal Assembly. In accordance with the principle of the separation of powers, it exercises state power alongside the president, the government and the courts.
The Federal Assembly consists of two chambers - the Federation Council and the State Duma. The two chambers work closely together, but are independent and their areas of responsibility are different. They meet separately and are housed in different buildings in Moscow.
The Federation Council is called upon to represent the positions and interests of the regions of Russia in its work. The Federation Council consists of two representatives from each subject of the Federation.
The exclusive competence of this Chamber includes such matters as changing the boundaries between the subjects of the Federation, confirming the presidential decrees declaring a state of war and a state of emergency, deploying the armed forces of the Russian Federation outside the territory of the country, and appointing them the election of the president. At the same time, the Federation Council acts as a kind of second instance in the legislative process. The laws adopted by the State Duma require its tacit approval or approval by vote. The rejection of a law leads to a special arbitration procedure and its repeated treatment in the Duma.
The Federation Council is in fact the first chamber of parliament, and the State Duma should be seen as its second chamber. Today's Russia inherited the name “State Duma” from the parliament that existed in the country between 1906-1917. It is formed by nationwide direct elections and represents the people of the entire country.
The State Duma is elected for a period of five years. Any citizen of Russia who has reached the age of 21 and has the right to participate in elections can be elected as a deputy of the State Duma. The State Duma deputies are elected according to party lists.
The main function of the State Duma is the creation of law. Before the bills are presented to a session for discussion, they should be drafted and worked through in the permanent committees that specialize in one or the other area of life in the state.
The exclusive competence of the State Duma is to give the President the approval of the appointment of the chairman of the government, to pass resolutions on the question of confidence in the government, to appoint and remove from office a number of top state officials, to announce an amnesty, and to levy an indictment of the President with the aim of his impeachment. The State Duma adopts the state budget.
The State Duma can be dissolved by the President if it rejects the candidates proposed by him for the office of chairman of the government three times or expresses suspicion to the government twice in the course of three months. However, a number of restrictions apply to this prerogative of the President. After the dissolution of the State Duma, the head of state should set the election date so that the newly elected Duma can meet no later than four months after the dissolution.
The federal structure
According to the form of its state structure, Russia is a federation. 83 state structures belong to it, which are called subjects of the federation.
The basic principles of the structure of the Russian Federation are the integrity of the state, the unity of the system of state power, the equality of subjects in mutual relations with the federal organs.
The subjects of the federation have their own legislative and executive bodies. The republics adopt their constitutions and other subjects - the statutes. These constitutions and statutes must correspond to the constitution of the Russian Federation. The federal constitution and federal laws take precedence over the entire territory of the country.
The delimitation of areas of responsibility and powers between the federal authorities and the federal subjects can also be based on bilateral agreements.
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