What is the difference between memorization and discovery

Learning theories according to Bruner

The American psychologist and educator Jerome Bruner developed a in the 1960s Theory of constructivist learning, known as learning through discovery. The main feature of this theory is that it encourages the student to acquire the knowledge on their own. Bruner believes students should learn through a guided discovery that occurs during a curiosity-oriented exploration.

Therefore, it is not the teacher's job to explain the content with a very clear beginning and ending, but to provide the right material that stimulates his students through observation, comparison, analysis of similarities and differences. In this article on psychology online we are going to talk about the subject Bruner's learning theories.

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  1. Bruner's learning to discover
  2. Jerome Bruner: Theory of Mental Representation Systems
  3. Lesson theory by Bruner
  4. Educational implications of Bruner's discovery method
  5. Benefits of learning through discovery
  6. Display modes
  7. Learning through Discovery: Examples and Elements
  8. Learning from Bruner's Discovery: Conclusions
  9. Significant Learning from David Ausbel

Bruner's learning to discover

The goal of discovery learning is for students to find out how things work in one way active and constructive. His focus is on promoting skills and abilities for verbal and written expression, imagination, mental representation, problem solving and the flexibility of metal.

The proposal elaborated by Jerome Bruner explains that learning should not be limited to mechanically memorizing information or procedures, but should encourage the learner to develop their ability to solve problems and reflect on the situation in which they are is face The school must help find new ways to solve old problems and solve new problems according to the current characteristics of society.

Some educational implications According to Bruner's theory, the teacher is led to consider elements such as student attitudes, compatibility, motivation, application of skills and use of information in problem solving, and the ability to manage and use the flow of information. in solving problems.

In Bruner's theory of intellectual development, it has great significance, i.e. the learner's ability to assimilate and memorize what has been learned, and then transfer this learning to other circumstances in his life that arise from his own worldview.

The role of the teacher in intellectual development

Bruner points out the importance of a systematic and sustained interaction between the student and the teacher or teacher, as well as with his classmates, in order to facilitate intellectual development. This must be a relationship of mutual respect, communication, dialogue and readiness for the teaching-learning process.

Jerome Bruner: Theory of Mental Representation Systems

Mental representation: It is a system or set of rules that allows you to keep track of what you have experienced on different events.

  • Inactive: knows something through action.
  • Iconic: by means of a drawing or a picture.
  • Symbolic: Symbols such as language are used.

Development implies the mastery of these three forms of representation and their partial translation from one system to another. These need to be introduced both in school and in daily life.

Lesson theory by Bruner

For Bruner, education is the global result of the familial, community, cultural and academic educational influences that a particular human group offers its members. The instruction is to lead the learner through a sequence of definitions and redefinitions about a problem or body of knowledge that increases the ability to capture, transform and transfer what has been learned.

Features of this theory: It is prescribed, that is Define rules and procedures Acquire knowledge and skills. In addition, there are the criteria for evaluating teaching or learning. In this part he wants the lessons to be flexible and dynamic.

Aspects that should be considered

  • activation. The first step in meaningful learning is to motivate the student. According to Bruner, this largely depends on the activation that the educator arouses through careful planning, originality, imagination, integrating new information with what is already known, based on the student's prior knowledge and the ability to change the strategy if necessary.
  • The maintenance. It is not enough to activate the student at the beginning of the lesson, their interest must be maintained throughout the study session.
  • The address. Learning must follow a certain order, depending on the complexity of the concepts. To do this, the educator must be familiar with the underlying theory and be able to relate it to practical situations.

Your components

  • Indication of the experiences that induce an individual to learn.
  • Specification of the appropriate structure of a body of knowledge.
  • Point out the most effective consequences in which to present the materials being learned.
  • The learning rhythm of each student.
  • Degree of rewards and penalties.
  • Bruner's explanations of learning

Learning for Bruner develops the ability to resolve conflicts and think about a situation. To learn something is to know something.

There is a responsibility in education for students to learn to solve old problems with new methods and to solve new problems for which the old formulas are not suitable. You need to help the student be creative, innovate, deal with emergencies and unforeseen events.

Educational implications of Bruner's discovery method

Thanks to Bruner's learning theories, we can propose a new psycho-pedagogical method. This method creates a special atmosphere in the classroom, which is favorable, taking into account the following elements:

  • The student's attitude: Encourage active discussion, present interesting topics, present the analyzed situations, point out essential points of reading or try to combine theoretical facts with practical questions.
  • The compatibility: The new knowledge must be compatible with the knowledge the student already has. Otherwise it would not be possible to properly understand and assimilate it.
  • The motivation: That the student gets to discover the emotion.
  • The practice of Skills and using information to solve problems: learning by discovery requires full integration of theory into practice. For this reason, the educator must create concrete situations in which the students can appropriately apply the theoretical concepts they have acquired.
  • Use of recipes: Real integration between theory and practice and not a simple repetition of a recipe that will only be useful in a few cases.
  • The importance of clarity in teaching a concept: by choosing content to avoid providing too many ideas that can lead to confusion.

Benefits of learning through discovery

Proponents of Bruner's learning theories see learning by discovery as having the following advantages:

  • It is used to overcome Limitations of traditional learning or mechanic.
  • Invite students to think for themselves, hypothesize, and try to systematically confirm them.
  • Power strategies metacognitive, that is, you learn to learn.
  • Strengthens self-esteem and security.
  • The creative problem solving.

It is particularly useful for foreign language learning as students play a very active role and encourage the use of language analysis techniques to infer how standards work and learn from mistakes.

Display modes

  • Mitigating representation: two years ago the condensation of things through actions with external experience.
  • Iconic representation: Explain the problems for two to six years, using different feelings, a picture or a special scheme.
  • Symbolic illustration: after six years he understands the environment through language, an abstract symbol. In summary, according to Bruner, cognitive development consists of actions, images, languages ​​and abstract symbols. It insists on the levels, integrative and continuous and also influenced by culture.

Bruner framework theory

Jerome Bruner also developed an interesting theory about a concept he developed himself: the scaffolding. This is defined as a guided discovery method that distinguishes two main characters: the educator or teacher and the student. Bruner's scaffolding theory suggests a method whereby the teacher naturally offers the knowledge without forcing the teaching units. In this way, active learning is encouraged.

Learning through Discovery: Examples and Elements

Bruner was just as actively focused on people Select, preserve and transform knowledge, can transcend concrete information and gain an abstract understanding.

Cognitive structure: Bruner believes that knowledge has structure. The learning process should help the student to own the knowledge structure.

Concept and division: The concept is the main element of knowledge compilation, and classification is one of the methods of knowledge compilation.

Inductive thinking: Bruner believes that the classroom learning process should be inductive, offer specific examples, and students should study the examples.

The cognitive process: Bruner looks at the learning process:

  • Receive new information.
  • Convert new information
  • Check the information rationality.

The educational goal of cognitive discovery

  • Education should help students develop the ability to solve the problem.
  • Education must help the student immerse himself in learning.
  • Education must develop the student's strength for effective learning.
  • Education must raise the student in an honest virtue.

Learning from Bruner's Discovery: Conclusions

Jerome Bruner very clearly asserts his position in the importance it has in learning, the fact that individuals acquire the tools necessary to resolve situations that arise. In addition, the fact that the new knowledge that is presented to the students must be related to the knowledge that already exists always saves.

It is important to mention that the motivation, as well as the right ones Teaching strategies are Basic skills for boys and girls to learn. To this end, the educator must take into account social, family, cultural and other aspects in his planning so that the learning is really absorbed by the subject.

In developing the teaching-learning processes, the way in which the students learn and the rhythm in which they are carried out must be taken into account in the planning of the lesson.

Like all constructivist theories, Bruner also takes into account in his theory of learning that the Lessons must be done through the interaction of all participants This does not take into account the routine and mechanical teaching currently taking place in the national education system. This has become a simple reminder and reproduction of recipes that are discarded by the mind after examination and are rarely used in similar situations.

In the context of psycho-pedagogy it is fundamental to analyze the way in which the teaching processes are carried out so that a shift towards these traditional and insignificant forms is possible for the students and in this way new strategies are presented can meet the current requirements of the population served.

It is clear that learning from the constructivist approach, it is not the simple repetition of terms, procedures, and others, but refers to the individual's ability to achieve flexibility of mind and reasoning in such a way that each lived experience offers him new knowledge that is real for him Life is useful through interaction with itself and with the environment.

Significant Learning from David Ausbel

"The most important factor influencing learning is what the student knows".

It is a cognitive theory that aims to theoretically explain the learning process. He's worried about the processes of Compression, conversion, storage and use of the insight information. The cognitive structure of an individual is an organized complex that results from the cognitive processes through which he acquires and uses knowledge.

New ideas and information can be learned and kept as long as relevant or adequate concepts are clear and available in the individual's cognitive structure and serve as anchors for new ideas and concepts. When new information becomes meaningful to an individual by interacting with existing concepts, learning matters.

Ausubel believes that three requirements must be met in order for meaningful learning to be achieved:

  • importance logic of the material
  • importance psychologically of the material
  • attitude cheap student