Will graduation at 26 affect my career

The social situation in Germany

School and vocational training is an important part of personal development. In addition, in Germany in particular, it has a decisive influence on the career path.


Facts

School and vocational training is an important part of personal development. In addition, in Germany in particular, it has a decisive influence on the career path. For example, in only four member states of the European Union (EU) the connection between education and unemployment is more pronounced than in Germany, in 23 it is weaker. When differentiating between the highest level of education achieved, according to Eurostat, only 2.4 percent of the workforce with a high level of education were unemployed across Germany in 2012 (level of education according to the ISCED - International Standard Classification of Education). In the same year, it was 5.4 percent of the workforce with a medium level of education. After all, the unemployment rate of the labor force with a low level of education was 12.6 percent. In addition, education has become increasingly important in this context: While the risk of being unemployed was only about twice as high in 1992 with a low level of education as with a high level of education (factor 2.2), it was in 2012 a good five times as high (factor 5.3).

Based on the general school leaving certificate and in 2012, 3.7 percent of the 15-year-old and older population were still in school education, according to the Federal Statistical Office. 92.1 percent had a general school-leaving certificate - 35.6 percent had a secondary school certificate, 6.9 percent a polytechnic secondary school certificate (general school type in the GDR), 22.1 percent a secondary school certificate and 27.3 percent had a technical college / university entrance qualification . 3.8 percent did not have a general school leaving certificate - that corresponds to around 2.7 million people. No information is available for 0.4 percent.

When differentiating according to age, it can be seen that the proportion of people with a general school leaving certificate is decreasing in the younger age groups: In relation to those with a general school leaving certificate, the proportion of people with a general school leaving certificate was 65-year-olds and older 2012 at 67.6 percent. Among the 55 to under 65 year olds, two out of five people had a secondary school diploma (42.8 percent), for the 15 to under 25 year olds or 25 to under 35 year olds it was only one of five people (21.8 and 20.5 percent). Correspondingly, the secondary school leaving certificate and the technical college / university entrance qualification are more widespread among the younger age groups than among the older ones: In relation to the people with a general school leaving certificate, the proportions in 2012 for the 15 to under 25 year olds were 37.9 and 40.1 respectively Percent and among 25 to under 35-year-olds at 33.1 and 46.2 percent respectively.

When comparing the 15-year-old and older population with a migration background with the total population, it is noticeable that the proportion of people without a general school leaving certificate is above average at 13.0 percent (total population: 3.8 percent). However, in the population with a migrant background, the proportion of people without a general school leaving certificate is significantly lower in the younger age groups than in the older population - accordingly, the value of the population as a whole will come closer over time.

If only the people with a general school leaving certificate are considered, the composition of the school leaving qualifications of the population with a migration background does not differ fundamentally from that of the population as a whole: 38.3 percent had a secondary school certificate in 2012 (total population: 38.6 percent), 0.8 had a certificate the polytechnic high school (7.5 percent), 25.3 percent had a Realschule certificate (24.0 percent) and 35.1 percent had the technical college / university entrance qualification (29.6 percent). However, if individual age groups are considered, there are clear differences: In 2012, among the 15 to under 25-year-olds and 25 to under 35-year-olds with a migration background, the proportion of people with a secondary school leaving certificate was 29.8 and 29.5 percent and thus 8.0 and 9.0 percentage points above the corresponding value for the total population (21.8 and 20.5 percent). Accordingly, the 15 to under 35-year-old population with a migration background had a lower secondary school qualification or a technical college / university entrance qualification less often than the total population.

In particular, the educational level of the parents has a very large influence on the educational attainment of the children (based on the parent with the highest qualification): 63.3 percent of the children who attended a grammar school in 2012 had at least one parent with a high school diploma, in 24 , 1 percent was the secondary school leaving certificate (or an equivalent) the highest educational qualification of a parent and in only 7.8 percent of the children one parent had a primary or secondary school leaving certificate. On the other hand, of the children who attended secondary school in 2012, only 13.0 percent had a parent with a technical college or university entrance qualification, 28.2 percent of parents had a secondary school certificate and 44.5 percent had a secondary school certificate themselves. According to the Education Report 2010, the transition to higher education is also strongly influenced by the level of education at home. The likelihood of starting a degree is significantly greater (even with the same high school graduation grades) if at least one parent has already completed a university degree. This finding "has not changed significantly for more than a decade".

In 2012, according to the Federal Statistical Office, 26.7 percent of the 15-year-old and older population did not have a vocational qualification (including people who had completed a year of vocational preparation or an internship, as they did not acquire any professional qualifications). Particularly with the younger generation, it should be noted that the vocational training does not have to be completed yet. 72.7 percent of the 15-year-old and older population had a vocational qualification, 0.6 percent did not provide any information.

Of the people who had a vocational qualification in 2012, 68.7 percent had completed an apprenticeship / vocational training in the dual system (including an equivalent vocational college qualification, preparatory service for middle service in public administration and people with semi-professional training). This high proportion is mainly due to the openness of this type of training for graduates of all types of school. 10.3 percent had a technical college degree (including a master craftsman / technician training and a degree from a health care school) and 1.6 percent had obtained their technical college degree in the former GDR. In 2012, 7.1 percent of those over the age of 15 had a technical college degree (including an engineering degree and an administrative college degree) and 10.7 percent had a university degree. For 1.5 percent, a doctorate was the highest vocational qualification. 0.2 percent did not provide any information about the type of their degree.

Data Source

Federal Statistical Office: Statistical Yearbook 2013; Eurostat: online database: unemployment rates by gender, age and highest level of education achieved (as of 10/2013); Author's group on education reporting: Education in Germany 2012, Education in Germany 2010

Terms, methodological notes or reading aids

In the data presented here, the results of the 2011 census (according to which, among other things, the number of foreigners is significantly lower than previously assumed) could not yet be taken into account, as no figures were available in the required depth. The existing "Results of the 2011 census on the subject of the population by school and professional qualifications" get here ...

Detailed information on the "ISCED classification" (International Standard Classification of Education) is available from the European Commission, for example.

In relation to unemployment according to the highest level of education achieved, Eurostat counts all persons between the ages of 15 and 64 as unemployed.
  • who were out of work during the reporting week,
  • who were available for dependent employment or self-employment in the two weeks following the reference week and
  • who have taken specific steps within the last four weeks (including the reference week) to find employment or self-employment or who have found a job but only take up employment later, i.e. within a period of no more than three months.

    Employed persons are persons aged 15 or over who in the reference week (EU Labor Force Survey) worked or did not work for at least one hour for remuneration, to make a profit or to increase family income, but who had a job from which they were temporarily absent goods (e.g. due to illness, vacation, strike, training or further training measures).

    More information about the "Unemployment by educational level" get here ...

    Table: Education level of the population

    15-year-old and older population after general school-leaving qualifications and vocational qualifications, 2012

    general school leaving certificate, shares in percent
    still in school education3,7
    with a general school leaving certificate92,1
    from that:
    Secondary school leaving certificate35,6
    Graduated from polytechnic high school6,9
    Secondary school leaving certificate22,1
    Technical college / university entrance qualification27,3
    without specifying the type of qualification0,2
    without a general school leaving certificate13,8
    without disclosures0,4

     


    Vocational qualification, shares in percent
    with a vocational qualification72,7
    from that:
    Apprenticeship / vocational training in the dual system250,0
    Technical college degree37,5
    Technical college degree in the former GDR1,2
    University of applied sciences degree45,2
    academic degree7,8
    promotion1,1
    without specifying the type of qualification0,1
    without a vocational qualification526,7
    without disclosures0,6

    1 including people who have graduated from school after a maximum of seven years.
    2 including an equivalent vocational college qualification, preparatory service for middle service in public administration as well as 440,000 people with apprenticeship training.
    3 including a master craftsman / technician training as well as graduation from a school of health care.
    4 including engineering school degree and administrative college degree.
    5 including vocational preparation year and internship, as these do not result in any professional qualifications.


    Source: Federal Statistical Office: Statistical Yearbook 2013