Kwanzaa is a Marxist holiday

P.P./Journal CH - 8038 Zurich

AFRICAN

Geographic factory newspaper No. 262, June / July 2010, 29th volume


Africa in the eyes of the Chinese by Bei Ling * A lot has been heard in this country about the rapid Chinese economic policy in Africa. But how do the Chinese perceive Africa? In the Middle Kingdom, the continent once stood for rock music, guerrilla warfare and the railroad. An exclusive insight from the well-known Chinese exiled poet and dissident Bei Ling. In the first half of the 20th century, Africa was especially far away for the Chinese. Africa was an abstract word for a hot and poor continent, which was known to have rich natural resources. In the Mao era (1949-1976), people in China began to be more interested in Africa. Africa was a political entity for China at the time, it was a continent that fought for national liberation and territorial independence from the powers of Western imperialism. At that time, China "exported" the revolution to Africa, to countries and regions such as Congo, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Ethiopia. We promoted Maoist parties and their military armament; we instigated guerrilla wars and uprisings to overthrow the old dictatorial systems and install Marxist governments as allies of China. In the 1970s, on October 1st, the national holiday of the People's Republic of China, the presidents of Tanzania and Zambia, Julius Nyerere and Kenneth Kaunda, stood over the Tiananmen Gate of the Forbidden City with the dictator Mao Zedong and his "eternal" Prime Minister Zhou Enlai , while hundreds of thousands of Beijingers shouted loudly to (party and state) chairman Mao "ten thousand years of life". These two African countries apparently always had the same presidents, by today's standards they were perhaps also sole rulers. The "Tanzania-Zambia Railway" In the 1970s, China under Mao Zedong provided 500 million US dollars

For a “business mercenary” like him, Africa is a haven of opportunity. And Len Steffen grabs them by the fore. Currently in one of the most run-down countries in Africa: Zimbabwe. In the industry, this is called “hands-on”: getting into the business, lending a hand yourself. That is exactly the job of banking specialist Len Steffen, hands-on manager in the service of investors. The 62-year-old has decades of experience in regions that sound quite exotic to 0815 bankers from Zurich, Frankfurt and London. Although constantly on the move or in the air, Len Steffen found time for a 20-minute telephone conversation with the factory newspaper. Mr. Steffen, what are the biggest challenges for investors in developing countries? In view of their past, many developing countries find it difficult to define their economic goals for the next five to ten years. Not so long ago, for example, Africa was the plaything of the Cold War. Russia on the one hand and the USA on the other positioned their advocates there and fought a proxy war, with the African countries pursuing different political goals, if any, because of their alliances with the Eastern and Western powers. Today, a more pragmatic approach can be observed - both by foreign investors and the governments concerned. These countries continue to pursue the most varied of development goals and it is up to private investors how best to implement investments in these countries. What makes Africa different from other developing regions? I don't think that the countries of Africa are systematically different from other developing countries. Sure, Africa has been left much further behind in terms of economic development and must therefore catch up a bigger gap. On the other hand: If you look back ten to 15 years, the starting point is

having a pretty Chinese woman in her arms could drive you crazy for good. The African students also brought Chinese friends to the friendship hotel or the dormitories for the weekend parties. In the semi-darkness of the fluorescent lamps, the beer bottles lay around among the half-naked young people dancing. The Africans really could dance wonderfully, their movements were completely at one with the music, at first you felt numb in this sensual world, and then very quickly infected. And you definitely wanted to come back. Overall, it was a shocking lesson for the Chinese who grew up listening to communist preaching.

Then there was also strange for the construction of a railway line from Many of these students were sons stories about the Africans, their Dar-es-Salaam in Tanzania to Kapiri from functionaries, who already had sexual desire in Africa tremendously strong, Mposhi in Zambia available. Who had been preferred. The chinesisie could do it all night, route is 1860 kilometers long and the government offered them each and their male organs were so well trained as a «Tanzania-Zambia Railway» month for their living expenses that their Chinese are known. It was the establishment of a 500 to 1000 renminbi, which was higher than the salary of a university student at the time. Some African southern center of the continent. Lots of professors. Students often went to the magnificent Chinese, who are now over 45, Wangfujing and Xidan shopping streets were very proud of this big Some of these students from Africa walk there to help beautiful girls there. If I lived properly in the "friendship hotel" I would speak to you. At that time jeans were remembered, China sent a total of west from Beijing, amidst a and down jackets, but also impor50,000 technicians to Tanzania and a luxurious park. Big university cigarettes and spirits only in Zambia, and 66 of them came by doing like Peking University, the “friendship shops” of the inner construction of this railway line around Tongji University and Fudan University City, and above all only for foreigners Life. The Chinese government university in Shanghai, as well as having the language. In these shops they had to call them «Heroes of Africa Aid» and college in Beijing, at which they were buried with great honors with a just for them. Foreign Students Paying Chinese Currency, Learning the Foreign Well, at the beginning of the 21st century, established heavily guarded Exchange Certificates (FEC). If it is an interesting residential building for foreigners for the Chinese, ask a foreign student how it is with the use of these students on campus. This friendship shop took away, and looks with railway line. There were residential buildings consistently with his passport or international student reports in the Chinese media, double and single room ID cards and his FECs one in which, in the last dozen days, there were swimsuits on each floor - Hong Kong-made tight pants or only three trains per year Weekly lay with hot water for 24 hours. Jacket bought for you from which they traveled this route. The train stations - some rooms had air conditioning otherwise could only dream, and if fe would be empty, and the goods traffic and their own refrigerators. you went on the street with it, since the 1980s you had to feel royal in this million tons per year at parties, rock music chung. 600,000 tons reduced. And sex A railway line of this length But in the 1980s, tens of millions of people came to China. At that time, almost all students from more and more European and America and tens of millions of tons of goods were young men from Africa. The Chinese niche students to China. The transport. Therefore they must have called it «Lao Hei» [lit. «Old Africans gradually became fewer, maintaining this route very expensive blacks», see «Lao Wai», literally, as the cities are becoming more prosperous. Of course, China therefore wants «old foreigners»]. Looked at everyone, and the Chinese townspeople know who for this preservation weekend there was a certain deliberation in the friendship developed, and whether the Chinese hotel and the student housing feeling towards the African government continues to put money into it. Men for foreigners parties up to the students. When a westerly morning. A student holding a Chinese girl in The Luxury Africans Arm was just about those African students who were too endurable, but when a black guy sang and danced rock music under Deng in the 1980s, it could make you mad, Xiaoping was this great myth of symbols for Chinese students of such a "plundering of the locals of the role of the railroad between the longed-for western world, they of sexual resources" to Tanzania and Zambia in the shaking off freedom and being represented. This is what happened in the second era of the African colonial yoke. During the mid-1980s and in the mid-1980s, these two Levi's jeans tensed around their powerful bums, 1990s in Shanghai, Beijing, countries and their special friendship in one hand they held a Nanjing and other cities to China popped up in the official Japanese SANYO tape recorder clashes because Chinese news is no longer on. With deafening rock music, the Africans were accused of the Chinese students, the other hand supported a half-empty, Chinese student interior from the end of the 1970s beer bottle, and so they strutted in to sexually molest them and in their many thousands of African students in Beat the music through the streets. Smuggling in dormitories to deal with China with generous scholarships. If any of them still have them to spend the night.

in which countries like Vietnam were located at the time, similar to those observed today in various countries in Africa. It is dangerous to speak of an "Africa" ​​as a whole. The countries in Africa are at least as different as the countries in Europe. How do you deal with the mostly high level of corruption in countries with weak institutions? The ADC (African Development Corporation - a company advised by Steffen that specializes in investments in financial institutions in South Sahara Africa; the editor) does not participate in corruption in any way, either actively or passively. At the end of last year, ADC and another international investor took over 54 percent of Premier Bank in Zimbabwe. The deal envisages selling part of it (after restructuring) to local investors within the next five years. How do you create sustainable added value for these investors? In these five years, we want to use our management skills to establish Premier Bank as a functioning financial institution that generates profits. As long as we create value in this bank, there will be an exit for us too. What is the added value for the local economy? My job at Premier will also be to train and prepare the local team to run the business alone in the medium term. Simply put, it's about working with the people in Zimbabwe, who - incidentally - are well trained, and sharing my experiences. However, many of them have never worked in an international environment and hardly have any international contacts. I can offer you this. I also know international best practices, [established ways of doing things; die Red.] on which the local organization should orient itself. We train people for their own benefit and for the benefit of their country.

How do you react to the often voiced criticism that whoever does business in these countries would inevitably participate in their exploitation? Well, there are always two sides to this: one who exploits and another who is willing to allow himself to be exploited. Countries like China, the USA or Switzerland cannot be condemned for trying to obtain raw materials and other input goods as cheaply as possible. Whether that is exploitation depends on whether the countries from which the raw materials come are able to negotiate deals from which the population also benefits. Indeed, given the weak political position of these countries, this does not always seem to be the case. Often enough, however, it fails less because of the ability than because of the will of local governments to put themselves in the interests of the population in these deals. Not just Africa, but all former colonial countries should stop looking for explanations of why things went wrong in the past and instead seek solutions that will make things go right in the future. In an interview with a journalist you said that you saw yourself as a "mercenary business". For me, a mercenary is someone who fights not for the cause but for the money. Am I misinterpreting something? I should be careful with this name. But I think you can't separate one from the other. If I do something, I have to believe in it too. Otherwise it doesn't make sense to me. By the expression “mercenary” I meant: As a consultant and interim manager, I make myself available to investors and help them on site to secure the value of their investments. Imagine if you were 30 again: Would you do it all over again? Nobody except God always makes the right decisions.

In the 1990s, the Chinese economy was fully capitalized, the whole people traded, and the government cut high scholarships for African students, so that these foreign "sons of officials" disappeared from our sight. At the beginning of the 21st century, China rose to become an economic superpower and the savior of world capitalism. Anyone who came to China from Africa now was not a student, but was looking for work or some kind of livelihood, and none of them would stalk the streets with a cassette recorder to attract the bees. Africa is disappearing from the screen Aside from a few pictures and stories of Nelson Mandela on the news, most Chinese were hearing less and less about Africa. America, Europe and Japan remained much more clearly in their minds. They just somehow knew that Africa was lagging behind economically, full of wars and refugees, immersed in promiscuity and AIDS, and above all dependent on alms that China was also distributing. In the last ten years, the number of Chinese migrants in Africa has risen sharply, and more than ten times as many Chinese have lived in Africa than ever African students in China. There are Chinese restaurants everywhere. Today, China hardly appears as a charity donor and supporter, but rather as a buyer of mineral and natural resources, as well as an arms dealer. Chinese companies, whether they are state, military or private, invest large sums in Africa and compete with the former colonial powers for the exploitation of the resources. China today by no means exports revolutions, but it still supplies arms. And with the buying up of natural resources and the expansion of the capitalist economy, China now has more political influence in Africa than ever before. African Nobel Prize Laureates

racial segregation association. She gave me a lengthy interview in which she discussed censorship and “internal emigration” under the apartheid regime. In November 2003, when Ms. Gordimer was celebrating her 80th birthday, I met her in Mexico City. We ate together and strolled through the city, she also showed me the art museum. I asked her again and again about the experiences of the black and white population in South Africa in the course of the democratization of the country. I had even more contact with Wole Soyinka, both personally and in correspondence. I got to know him at Harvard in June 1995. He had been sentenced to death in absentia by the military rulers in Nigeria, lived in exile and taught at the Department of African and African American Studies at Harvard University. He was always accompanied by bodyguards on the street. In his office he gave me a very detailed interview. We talked about literature and theater, the situation in Nigeria and the links between literature and politics - at that time Vaclav Havel was President of Czechoslovakia, we discussed how that might affect his role as a writer. My wish: My own image of Africa In October 2002, at the invitation of the University of California at Irvine, we both discussed censorship and literature in Africa and China. In February 2003 I met him again at the Taipei International Book Fair, where we talked for days. He told me about the rich cultural traditions of the different tribes in Nigeria and the cruelty of military rule.Wole Soyinka was concerned about massacres and bloody conflicts around the world, especially between followers of different religions and between Israelis and Palestinians. I felt a very strong sense of responsibility, towards Nigeria and Africa, but also far beyond. In my eyes, Africa is a very rich continent, rich in languages ​​and traditions. The writers in Africa work under difficult conditions and are committed to a renaissance of their culture. Much of what I learn about Africa reminds me of China, such as the gap between rich and poor, the political bondage and the cruelty of the dictatorship. That's why I also hope that I can visit Africa soon and get an idea for myself.

I owe my personal knowledge of Africa to my friendship with the two Nobel Prize winners for literature, Nadine Gordimer and Wole Soyinka. In April 1994 I met Gordimer at Harvard, where she was lecturing for a year as part of the Norton Lectures. She told me about the needs of the black population * Translated by Martin Winter in South Africa, which had been caused by the apartheid system. I also learned how their literary work in their home country was

«One who exploits and another who lets himself be exploited» Len Steffen in an interview with Lukas Rühli * Len Steffen The financial expert worked his way up from a trainee at a major Dutch bank to the COO (Chief Operating Officer) of its Asia-Pacific Zone and was stationed in Singapore for a long time. In 1995 he went to a competing company, in 2001 he started his own business. As a consultant and interim manager, he now makes head and hands available wherever he is needed: In countries where institutions are weak, investments are financially promising and where a man with 25 years of international banking experience can make a difference. Between 2001 and 2008 he merged three banks in the mafia-plagued financial sector of Croatia, had advisory mandates in Slovenia, Romania and Russia, and built up an investment bank in Mauritania, which was then freshly pushed. Since 2009 he has been advising the African Development Corporation (ADC), a company focused on investing in financial institutions in South

ra-africa specializes. Since then he has been responsible for "takeovers" in Equatorial Guinea, a dictatorship, and Zimbabwe, a country with record inflation and disappeared opposition members. In Equatorial Guinea, ADC currently manages the national bank of the sole ruler; in Zimbabwe, it has held a majority in the “Premier Bank” since November 2009, together with another foreign investor, thanks to a special permit.

* The economist Lukas Rühli is a research assistant at Avenir Suisse and was asked by the factory newspaper


The Africa edition

africa is a projection surface for western and african dreams. 53 countries share the continent, 13 authors show what Africa is and will be. 2 Africa in the eyes of the Chinese from Bei Ling 2 “One who exploits and another who lets himself be exploited” Len Steffen in an interview with Lukas Rühli 3 Afropolitanism by Achille Mbembe 4 Future vision and mass graves by Lara Garcia 4 Dakar return by Tobias Borke 9 Briller et s'envoler by Astrid S. Klein 9 Helvetia in Subsahara by Philippe Kropf 10 African music blogs by Georg Milz 10 Digging deeper and deeper by Joël Vacheron 12 Magic in African football by René Martens 12 Dance around the monkey rock by Tozim Madzima & Christoph Schneeberger

Afropolitanism the provision of the Here with the AnDERSWO by Achille Mbembe * Africa will always be a continent in motion. An “Afropolitanism” that overcomes the frozen “African nationalism” would have to tie in with this. Namely through the old curiosity about the foreign and an openness for the hybrid.

Time seems to me to be two aspects of particular importance for cultural life and the aesthetic and political creativity of the coming years. First of all there is the question: «Who is African» - and who is not?

Many consider themselves completely African, even if they have somewhere else in reserve. Africa is movement

But Africa was not only the target of many population movements for a long time - be it in literature, in philosophy In the eyes of many people, whoever and cultural currents, the continent or art - is "black" and consequently "not white" is African for almost a century . has been for centuries, the African yardstick of authenticity is the breakpoint; from here one drew into discourse of three political-intellectual- intensity of (black) skin color. different areas of the world. This process of several centuries has not been mutually exclusive. People actually have a wide variety of permanent “dispersion”. On the one hand, there were several connections to Africa or have had three in the course of modern times Routes varieties of an anti-colonial at least used in different ways: the Sahara, the Atlantic and nationalism, which in turn have something to do with Africa - something they have the Indian Ocean. A result areas of culture, politics, economy and eo ipso empowered, for itself one of these scattering about was the EntsteReligion have lastingly influenced. On the other hand, there have been several approaches to claiming “African citizenship”. Of course there are those who are the Diaspora in the New World, and a Marx rereading what led us to call "the blacks" (nègres); An important contribution in this process of that different varieties of one they are in one of the African dispersion was slavery, which "African socialism" emerged. States were born, live there and are not only Africans in the western, thirdly there was a pan-African place citizen. But even if but also in the Arab-Asiatic current that brought two types of these blacks to the majority of the world. Because of this «CirculaSolidarity promoted: The one population of the continent form, tion of worlds» are nowadays based on the «race» and were nevertheless neither the only ones in almost every spot of the capitalist transnational, the other founded residents nor the only ones Art and Islamic world traces of Africa to «internationalism» and was and culture creators of Africa. Find. On the forced deportationunanti-imperialistic. In earlier times, other population groups followed - from colonization caused to today, at the beginning of the 21st century Asia, the Arab states or from migration movements. Today life is different, this intellectual Europe - have hardly changed from different millions of people in the African landscape, underground reasons at different times in origin as citizens in the different, however, large different areas of Africa take place in the most countries of the world. When it comes to social and cultural upheaval. settled down. Some, like the Arabs the artistic creativity in The gap between the social and the Europeans, are as conquerors, today's Africa is about or even about the real reality on the one hand and the merchants or religious zealots question who are "Africans" and what intellectual tools by means of which the came. Others, like Afrikaa “African”, this historical society will tackle their future ner / Boers or the Jews, are under the phenomenon of “circulation of can on the other hand, culturally partly tragic historical circumstances can be worlds” mostly with silence and mentally quite dangerous . come, be it, to misery and passed over. From the point of view of Africa, the three above have long since escaped persecution, be it in the institutionalized hope of a peaceful world, the phenomenon of the circulation of the paradigms mentioned above: That sings and is so frozen that the lives or simply out Greed for one is the aforementioned scatter, today's changes with the riches. Still others - about the other one is immersion (tools that are always known are hardly ever more often used as compliant workers). At the scatter of the peoples and can be analyzed credibly. cultures immigrated to southern Africa, historically speaking, the institutional sponsors function the Malay, Indians and Chinese - it is not just about the fact that there were people, almost without exception according to the principle - within the framework of different people who come from outside, with the « ancestral privileges ». They migration flows in Africa have settled a new us. Rather, block both any renewed home were sought. In recent times the pre-colonial African generation of cultural criticism as well as any Lebanese, Syrians, Indopakistani and societies from the beginning have been characterized by the renewal of artistic such as here and there a few hundred that people philosophical creativity, in short, they or a thousand Chinese surfaced. All within the entire continent diminish our ability to contribute these people have their language, were constantly on the move. The contemporary reflection on their customs, their eating habits, their history of Africa is a history of culture and democracy. Clothing fashions and their way of praying, brought from clashing cultures - in short: their ways of life shaped by the maelstrom of wars, by Who is African? and working methods. The relationships of invasions, migrations, intermarriages, of these different diaspora groups of doctrines of faith that one makes into the comprehensive and their respective original societies, of techniques that one has profound change in recent years are extraordinarily complex. exchanges, of goods with which one

Trades. The cultural history of the continent can hardly be understood without the paradigm of wandering, mobility and change of location. It was precisely this culture of mobility that was frozen in place during the colonial era by the modern institution of drawing borders. The circulation of the worlds When one speaks of this history of wandering and mobility, one speaks again and again of «mixtures», «amalgams» and «overlays». One can argue against the fundamentalists of “customs” and “autochthonism” that the so-called tradition does not actually exist. No matter what it is about: Islam, Christianity, the way of dressing, doing business, talking or eating - none of this has ultimately survived the steamroller of hybridization and trivialization unscathed. This had already happened before the colonization. There is a pre-colonial African modernity that has so far not been perceived and evaluated in contemporary African creativity.

Here - and vice versa - this relativization of the original roots and affiliations, this way of deliberately accepting the foreign, the foreign and the distant, this ability to recognize one's own face in that of the foreign, to appreciate the traces of the distant in the immediate vicinity To embrace the unfamiliar and to work with what appears to be the opposite of what is commonly seen - such a cultural, historical and aesthetic sensitivity is what is meant when the term "Afropolitanism" is used.

Afropolitanism is something different from Pan-Africanism or Négritude. Afropolitanism is a style, an aesthetic and a certain poetics of the world: a being-in-the-world, which on principle rejects any form of victim identity - even if we therefore the injustices and the violence that our continent and its people are caused by the World history has suffered imposed passage of time, by no means ignore it. Afropolitanism is also a political and cultural stance on questions of nation, "race" and difference in general. The other face of the «circulation of the face of the fact that our worlds» is, as already mentioned, the pure and, moreover, rather young, thawing states. This is about minorities who are inventions, they come strictly from afar, differently nothing in themselves that could gain a foothold on the continent, embrace a cult. Over time, they had to establish themselves - even if we are not indifferent to the relationship to the respective (European or Asian fate of our states) countries of origin. As for “African nationalism” and human conditions, it was originally a cultural “hybrid”, no matter how powerful utopia, which was about a vociferous precisely the Euro-Africans - “Ko - boundless emancipatory power of lonisation obligated "- incessantly decreed - the attempt to understand our own racially justified superiority, to stand before the world and to erect its otherness, even hers and us, with dignity, as contempt for everything" African "and mere human beings. But as soon as "natives" expressed it. The nationalism to the official This concerns precisely and in particular the ideology of a plundering state "Afrikaaner", as it became in the southern one, it lost its ethical core Africa the whites call themselves. The and dedicated itself to the demon, the same ambivalence can be found in “roaming the darkness and the Indian, as with the Lebanese and Syrians. Eschews daylight ». Even though they mostly speak the local languages ​​human face, ours and the customs of the country, being human remains largely known to this day, or even a practical obstacle against which nationalism adorns, they live in relatively closed and nativism [a form of endogamous communities. Ethnocentrism or tribal thinking; d. Red.] Keep running. So it is not only the case that today Pan-Africanism proclaims a part of African history Solidarity of the “race” does not escape this dilemma elsewhere, outside of Africa. As soon as the present is, but it is also so that Africa is aware of its own, there is a constitutional history of the rest of the world, generating diversity (including which we inevitably help to shape and the diversity of the "races"), you can find yourself here on our continent no longer plays the entire continent. All in all, our kind has only defined through the black African of being-in-the-world, of self-world solidarity. How can one overlook the being and our way of seeing the rest of the world, that they inhabit it so loudly, always under the sign of solidarity, if the cultural “hybridization has not put itself in the wrong because of afterization”, then at least At least one of the end of the direct colonial rulers "disposal" of the different worlds is governed by a different violence: that confessed, in a slow, brother against brother just as sometimes incoherent dance, which, like that of brother against mother, we do not form ourselves and the sisters? have been able to choose freely, which we, however, more right than badly, got hold of in the Contribute to the World and were able to serve us. So we have to look for other ways to revive intellectual life in AfricaAfropolitanism - and with it an art, a philosophy and an aesthetic to enable the knowledge of this availability of something new and general in the world here with the elsewhere, the knowledge Meaning that the presence of the elsewhere has to contribute to the tendes. nowadays

many Africans live outside of Africa. Others have chosen to remain on the continent of their own free will, but they do not necessarily live in the country where they saw the light of day. Moreover, many of them are fortunate enough to have known several worlds; they have never really stopped traveling back and forth, and have acquired an immensely keen eye and an enormous wealth of sensation via the detour of this mobility (freedom of movement). Almost all of these people speak more than one language. You are in the process of creating a new transnational culture - perhaps without even knowing it - that I would like to call an «Afropolitan» one. Among them are many who, in what they do every day, not only have to keep up with the neighboring village, but with the whole world. This cosmopolitan spirit is particularly pronounced in artists, musicians and composers, writers, poets and painters - in those intellectual workers who keep watch in the post-colonial darkness. On another level, a few metropolises can already be described as “afropolitan” today. In West Africa, Dakar and Abidjan played this role in the second half of the 20th century, with the Senegalese capital representing the cultural counterpart to the enterprising Abidjan. Unfortunately, Abidjan has now been eaten away by the cancer of nativism. In East Africa it was Nairobi, the trading center and regional seat of various international organizations. The center of Afropolitanism par excellence today is Johannesburg in South Africa.In this city, which has been pressed on the grindstone of a violent history, a completely unknown, new kind of African modernism is emerging that has little in common with what has been seen to date. It is fed by a diversity of races and their cultural heritage, an energetic economy and a liberal democracy; the consumption that is indulged here is directly part of the global flow of goods. What is emerging here is an ethic of tolerance that could have what it takes to reinvigorate cultural creativity in Africa in a way similar to what Harlem or New Orleans did in the United States. © Le Monde diplomatique, Berlin The article is an abridged reprint of the German translation with the kind permission of «Le Monde Diplomatique». There he appeared in the themed volume «Africa: Pride and Prejudice» Translated from the French by Grete Osterwald. * The Cameroonian Achille Mbembe is one of the most important contemporary African thinkers. His concept of Afropolitanism opens the door to a new age of African self-image.


Portrait in many public and private spaces. Like many other Tutsis, Kagame had to leave the country in 1960 for fear of the violent government. He ended up with his family in the Gahure refugee camp in Uganda, where he began his military career. For many years, refugee Tutsis tried to return to their homeland, but they were repeatedly refused entry. Attempts to gain entry by force were also unsuccessful. But when the genocide began in April 1994, the Front Patriotique Rwandais (FPR) invaded Rwanda with Kagame as an influential member. After three months, the fighters managed to occupy Rwanda's capital Kigali and end the killing in the country.

gives people orientation. In Rwanda, an overpopulated landlocked country, the majority of adults are farmers. Due to traditional self-sufficiency, agriculture is not very productive. There is also a lack of alternative energy sources; therefore deforestation is being promoted. In the medium term, through the “Vision 2020”, the country is to develop from an “agricultural economy to a knowledge-based economy”, and in the long term even to a central hub for eastern and central Africa, with the help of “a productive middle class and the promotion of entrepreneurship”. Kagame's strategy is therefore aimed at developing the private sector through support measures for entrepreneurs. In order to make these huge promises of “Vision 2020” the country, whose leadership Kagame had to redeem, Rwanda had to take over, was terrified of attracting investors and lives. The people of Rwanda were faced with a heap of ruins that they could use to reduce their dependence on the international community. Instead of forcing the economist to deal with the economic development in favor of what has happened. The victims cried out to support development aid for justice. In November 1994 it was rather corruption. the international crime tri-The program “Vision 2020” seems to have been set up in Arusha in order to make the simple and obvious: “Invest to convict the main culprits. That in the country and be part of the dream. " Need for a public part of this dream are also the comprehensible court process was US companies Costco and Starbucks, two big in this country, whose prison - the biggest buyer for coffee from se of alleged genocides Rwanda. The great difficulty is overflowing. In the course of the reconciliation, however, in Rwanda's image of the Geno, the government resumed an old judicial practice with an image of prosperity - the gacaca - in which the gacaca was to be replaced. This is essential in order to gain the trust of investors in local court cases. is involved. The people involved, often neighbors, have had to face each other since Kagame took up his post in 1994 and has been constantly accused by a shadow. The procedure is very much accusatory. He advertises fragile internationally, and it is not surprising that the gacaca dishes with great zeal for the “Vision 2020”, again and again, but many ask themselves skeptically how resentment, skepticism and abuse are confronted with the stability of war. But the country's lawsuits and violence are not helping the Rwandans in the end. Kagame himself insists on sticking to the past - tirelessly, allowing the image of Rwanda to survive without forgetting. do not reduce themselves to the genocide: "We will not forget the genocide" Rwanda Vision 2020 ", but we will not define ourselves by it either, while the Gacacas in Rwanda allow it." Rwanda is supposed to be a wealthy part of colonization by 2020 and Rwanda is eager to reconcile the already distorted, Kagames is not easy on the way. The necessary country says the "Vision 2020" of imposed meanings. ten terms continue to inflate until the government goes into the future. In the year, an image of President Kagame's prosperity. The stretched words 1994 finally called in 2000 to build up the “Rwanda Vision 2020”, is often omnipresent with a genocide. Whether the load than exploded towards the end of the 19th century. The genocide of Tutsis came into being, with one clear main goal: darkening the past, this past being too difficult for the Europeans - first Germans, then and the massacre of moderate Hutus “All of Rwanda should be confused by 2020. It is indisputable, however, that Kagame appears as a question of image. Belgians and the Catholic Church, they devastated the country; Fear and fear in a middle-income country that Rwanda had come to Rwanda since the end of the “pères blancs” - horror subjugated the population. A massacre must always be in search of an “Akababaje umutima gahindura, no racial conflicts existed. Those who survived were caught. Per capita earnings of US $ 900. Way was how past and ímpínga »is a Rwandan between Hutus, Tutsis and Twas (who in the here and now, with no prospect of (today: US $ 290) Proverb: «The passionate third ethnic group living in Rwanda- an escape. of 30 percent (today: 64 percent) bring desires of the heart. It was not until the Belgian settlers and an average lifter My body, human skeleton, legs in motion early in the morning. " the tribal names were distorted, exile and return Kagame waiting 55 years (today: 49 Rwanda's history in the last as if the words were Tutsi and Hutu years) to be reached ». This vision in 1997, three years after the end of the century, was inseparable from elastic containers. Racial hatred was After the genocide, Paul Kagame may sound like a utopia, massacre, the government began tied as these words were born. Although the Belgians are the country's president of Rwanda. When I created the country for a country with a Kagames, with a number of exhumations translated: It's a story- Left in 1962, traveled the media for the first time in 2007, enthroned his great lack of hope, but they struggled. Mass graves were excavated

Future Vision and Mass Graves By Lara Garcia *

Bow into a small glass on the tray with which he served us the traditional tea that all men drink here at every opportunity. «Everything is fine, thank you. And with you? ”I answered and took the steaming little glass with the fragrant tea, which was hidden under an impressive head of foam. «Hamdoullah (thank God!). I always feel good. Do not worry. Chez Papis, pas 2 soucis! (Don't worry with dads) »We laughed and sipped the sweet mixture of hard-boiled China Gunpowder black tea and fresh mint. Fortunately, that was only the first round of tea out of a total of three per pot.

Dakar return by Tobias Borke - and back. He looked at me blankly, called something to a friend on the corner, probably "Can you change?" He shook his head and my fruit shop buddy handed me the plastic bag with the words "Just pay for it tomorrow." The child man

Dakar Beach Style Streetlife on the Westcoast. The Stuttgart rapper and musician Tobias Borke, 26, recently spent two weeks on the westernmost tip of Africa. His first trip to Africa took him to the metropolis of Dakar. Now also known as Borke's rapper's paradise. My daily walk to the beach of Yoff led me through the backyards of HLM Grand Yoff, over dusty streets with friendly greetings to the city freeway that rolls through the city, honking and smoking. After the large Air Maroc advertising poster - “Vous etes unique” - it was time to dive right into the branching streets of Yoff. The friendly boy was always there with his fruit stand who supplied me with bananas, biscuits and phone cards. He proved to me that we “Toubabs” (whites) have generally forgotten to trust ... “Tomorrow, how are you today?” "Good thank you. And you, brother? " «It fits. Will you give me a couple of bananas, a pack of chocolate planets, and a calling card for 5,000 francs? " I rummaged in my wallet and found only large bills. 10,000 francs. Around 20 CHF. You can take a taxi three times across the whole of Dakar

Eating together «Are you coming? Food is ready." Commandant stood with a smile in the door to the living room, which I had hidden in to feast on the neighbour's WiFi connection. "I'll be right there," I replied, closing my grinder. You eat together here. The whole house Across from the front door of my house and all of my friends and acquaintances, a special man had his who are nearby. Greetings, shop. He sold sweets to washes his hands and sits down children, his business was popular with the kids on the carpet, but didn't seem to throw off the big bowl with the food in the middle. On his stands. You share and make sure that the names I can no longer eat the others enough, one laughs precisely remembered, just that and tells about the day that was passed. And others were amused because when someone is not there, then I took them seriously. If he saw me, something was saved. he greeted me profusely, once he even blessed me. I don't think he was really crazy. He was probably just aware that children have very sincere souls and he decided to remain one himself in a certain way.

When drinking, "Are you okay?" asked Papis and poured Ataya in a big sweep

My first visit to Nyamata Memorial Church was in 2007. I walked down the stairs between the benches to the center of the room. In the crypt, individual objects and a wooden coffin could be seen behind a glass cabinet. I had read about the crypt for the first time in a book by the Ivorian writer Véronique Tadjo. The woman in the coffin on display was brutally murdered in Nyamata in 1994. Her name was Mukandori. After seeing her, I left the church with a disturbing noise in my ears. There is a school 50 meters from Nyamata Church. On one of its outer walls is a picture in which the dead meet the living. The inscription reads: My body, human skeleton.

* Lara Garcia (Spain) lives between Madrid and London. The artist and researcher wrote her doctoral thesis entitled “Strategies of representing the Rwandan Genocide. Alfredo Jaar and the insufficient gaze ”. She is currently working on the project “Art images and rewriting narratives in Global Visual Culture” at Complutense University in Madrid. Lara Garcia thanks Jeanine Munyeshuli Barbé for her advice and comments on this text.

Dancing for tourists

Who is horny

One of the saddest things for me was trying to go dancing. Unfortunately, John, a friend of my hosts, thought the only place to go out was Alamdies, the tourist district. After hanging around for a long time in the "Five" on the main street of Almadies, an incredibly hip shop where everyone, like everywhere in such establishments, is very careful to appear more than they are, we ended up in a shed after a short detour which was integrated into a hotel complex. Actually, that should have scared me off. Nightmare. Babylon is everywhere.

"I like the way you act", Cheikh praises me: "In the end you learned it." "Yes. Better late than never, "I say. It is the day of my departure. I am not in a good mood, because I have settled in and do not want to go back to Europe, where the infrastructure is outstanding and the social behavior of the people is poor. The market is dusty and a huge bustle. Suddenly a young man stands in front of me, dressed in a self-painted, yellow T-shirt with the inscription: «Who is horny and has a penguin on his back?». I have to laugh and asked him if he knew what that means on his shirt. "No," he replies. Immediately afterwards he knows.

Crossroads A man lived on a traffic island next to the city highway. Sure there is a lot of poverty in Dakar, but it stood out. Actually nobody gives up in this city. In any case, I didn't meet anyone except him. Even the polio-infected brother of an acquaintance dragged himself every morning with the words "Hamdoullah Ca va!" (Thank God I'm fine!) And his improvised walker to work. But this man slept like a mummy curled up in an old tarpaulin in the blazing sun and warmed everything he found over a fire. From plastic waste.

ben to give the deceased a dignified burial. The scenes of the massacres - churches and schools - became memorials of the genocide: the bones and clothes of the deceased are on display in the evacuated areas.

Market economy “What does the T-shirt cost?” I asked. "5000 francs," replied the dealer. I laughed: "This is the Toubab price, my friend." «Absolutely not, that’s unbelievably good quality, here’s a touch!”. I grabbed the t-shirt and said my price: "I'll give you 1000." He laughed: “Brother, I have to eat. Do you wanna ruin me But I realize you're a good guy, I'll give it to you for 3000. ». "1500," I countered. He shook his head: "Forget it!" “It's a shame, then I have to go on. Thank you anyway and have a good day. " I turned off. He stopped me: "Hopp, give me 1500.".


fire

a continent as p

In many of the back streets of South African townships you will see children playing football in their bare feet on rubble-strewn pavements. Boots For Africa, founded by Sheffield FC - The World’s First Football Club - collect your old football boots and deliver them to the children and adults of Africa.

With the establishment of the “Aid by Trade Foundation” in 2005, Dr. Michael Otto, CEO of the Otto Group, underlined the responsibility of the economy for global sustainable development. The exclusive and immediate purpose of this foundation is to promote the sustainable cultivation of agricultural and forestry products in

This logo was designed for a church organization going on a trip to Africa. There were no real limitations for the design set by the client, and while searching for inspiration, I thought of how simila Africa looked to a foot. Remarkably, the foot and the continent worked well together and this is the child of the two ideas.

The 'Boots For Africa' appeal aims to help develop the skills and fitness of disadvantaged children, and provide more children with the opportunity to enjoy the beautiful game. The VW Touareg is a sport utility vehicle from the German car manufacturer Volkswagen.

Developing countries. Provided that the developing countries have high-quality products that have not yet found their way onto the world market, the basic philosophy of the foundation is: "Trade can help fight poverty."

An unknown disease is spreading in West Africa. But the authorities are not allowed to research the causes in Mali - where the origin of the disease is suspected. Out of necessity, WHO doctors Eva Rojas and Frank Hopper turn to the two NUMA adventurers Dirk Pitt and Al

So far, two generations have been built: VW Touareg I (first generation, 2002–2010), then the VW Touareg II (second generation, since April 2010)

Giordino. They want to search for a mysterious Confederate ironclad from the Civil War, which is said to be stranded with a large gold load in Africa, and they take the doctors up a piece of the Niger with them.

In its report on AFRICA, Der Spiegel spoke of a “kingdom of jugglers and a paradise of joie de vivre”! AFRICA!. With this show, it was said on ZDF, "André Heller is doing something good for the audience, the artists and an entire continent". In rare unanimity, the critics reviewed a circus theater of which the FAZ even said, “A visit from AFRIKA! AFRICA! should be able to be prescribed by a doctor. "

After the extremely successful European tour, appearances in Russia, Asia and the USA are planned.After the success of Afrika Afrika, the production company Prime Time Entertainment AG planned another circus spectacle entitled “INDIA - a journey to the land of mystery and wonders”. On February 10, 2010, the production company filed for bankruptcy at the Darmstadt District Court.

In connection with the establishment of the Rastafarian movement in

The mission of Africa 2020 is to transform, change, improve a paralyze system. Our aim is to create a new tangible vision of Africa that is sustainable and beneficial for the new generation of African entrepreneurs. We will spread knowledge via global networks and internet tools.

Live Aid is the name of a benefit concert that took place on July 13, 1985 in favor of Africa. It was largely organized by the musician Bob Geldof on the occasion of the acute famine in Ethiopia at the time. It was the continuation of the Band Aid project that Geldof had previously organized. This was followed by Band-Aid-II (1989) and Band Aid 20

Afri-Cola (from "African ColaBohne", brand spelling: "afri-cola") is a cola brand from Germany and was registered as a trademark in 1931 by F. Blumhoffer Nachhaben GmbH.

on May 15, 2004 in Zurich. The date of the international soccer tournament was announced on December 6, 2006, also in Zurich.

“Vision for Africa” is an international organization whose aim is to give poor children in Africa (currently mainly Uganda) an education and give them hope

Jamaica is Marcus Garvey, the founder of the Back-to-Africa movement. Garvey predicted the coronation of a powerful black king in Africa in the 1920s. The coronation of Haile Selassie (= "Power of the Trinity") after a coup to become Emperor of Ethiopia in 1930 was seen as the fulfillment of this prophecy.

We will gather the rich resources; work hand to hand, together in order to change the Africa Continent. By 2020 Africa we will focus in addressing some key areas of continent, for example Poverty, Aids, Women and men empowerment, children education, literacy, global warming, and economical justice.

(2004). Live Aid was the biggest rock concert in history to date. It took place in parallel in London's Wembley Stadium (subtitled "Feed the World") and in the John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia.

The logo is available for purchase on Brandstack.com under the price of $ 500. The finals of the 19th World Cup will take place from June 11 to July 11, 2010 in South Africa, which is the first time on the African continent. The decision of the Executive Committee of the world football association FIFA was made

Rastafari is a religion that emerged in the black population of Jamaica in the 1930s and is now widespread worldwide. It originated from Christianity and has many Old Testament references. The movement teaches the divinity of Haile Selassies.

to give for their future. With the help of many donors, this dream has already become a reality for several thousand children.

In the 1930s, company boss Karl Flach ran an advertising campaign against the market leader Coca-Cola, which aimed at widespread anti-Semitic attitudes in Germany: From a factory tour of the US headquarters

he took crown caps with the word "kosher" in Hebrew script and presented them in Germany as proof that Coca-Cola was a Jewish company. Max Keith, head of Coca-Cola Germany, who had a very good relationship with the Nazi regime, unsuccessfully demanded the removal of a Jewish member of the supervisory board of his group.


Africa

projection surface

Africa Kwanzaa Chocolate Lollipop - This is where this chocolate comes from. Good for Fair Trade, good for Kwanzaa. Comes wrapped in 100% biodegradable FDA approved

cellophane and raffia. 1.75oz. (10% of the sales of this product will be donated to Project Hope and Fairness - Helping the African Cocoa Growers.)

Poster made by Faustino Pérez, 1977, for Ospaal, the organization of solidarity of the people of Asia, Africa & Latin America. www.ospaaal.com

Women‘s Land Link Africa (WLLA) Project. Women throughout Africa face systematic and pervasive denial of their housing, land and property rights. The denial of these rights not only undermines women’s empowerment and autonomy, it also often lies at the root of women’s poverty and economic

insecurity. In countries throughout the region, gender-based discrimination and social exclusion combine to ensure that women are less able than their male counterparts to access even the most basic assets needed to improve their lives.

Happy Africa is an artistic lifestyle brand celebrating ideas and dreams in pursuit of happiness. Happy Africa’s vision is simple ... build a solid brand for the entire family, selling affordable women, men and kids T-shirts and other brandable merchandise that will be able to raise funds which can be put towards the education and development of under priveledged kids

in Africa. Happy Africa clothing and products will be available online and in select stores across the U.S. Happy Africa will design T-shirts representing each country in Africa but will start with logo tees. Twenty percent of sales from T-shirt sold will be donated to Kids for Tomorrow.

Tintin in the Congo is a comic album from the Tintin series by the Belgian draftsman Hergé, which was initially published in black and white from 1930 to 1931. Tintin travel together to the Belgian Congo. After a few incidents on the outward journey, they reach their destination, where they go hunting in a rental car with the local boy Coco. After a short time, the car is stolen from them by a white man. You manage the car

The Lion King (original title: The Lion King) is the 32nd full-length animated film from the Walt Disney Studios from 1994. Measured in terms of cinema revenues, it is the most commercially successful classic cartoon film worldwide to date. [1] The plot of the film revolves around the

Lion cub Simba and the arduous search for his place in the cycle of life. In 1997 the film was adapted for a musical.

According to the definition of the Kimberley Agreement, a blood diamond or conflict diamond is a diamond, the proceeds of which are used to finance violent conflicts. They are mostly illegally mined and sold in conflict areas in order to finance rebel or invasion troops and thus contribute to the prolongation of the conflict.

In order to take into account the fact that human rights violations still occur in many mining areas even after the official peace agreement, some organizations are advocating an expansion of the above definition. According to them, all diamonds that are mined in violation of human rights are to be referred to as conflict diamonds.

to get back, but the thief gets away with it. Hergé was accused of racist, colonialist and violence glorifying depictions because of the episode Tim in the Congo. The African natives are portrayed as very naive and childlike. Violence against animals has also been criticized, for example Tim kills an elephant in order to acquire its ivory.

Society for Women and Aids in Africa (SWAA) Ghana is a branch of SWAA International, a Pan African Women’s organization with its headquarters in Senegal. SWAA International was born out of a conference in Stockholm, Sweden; where a few African women came together and recognized that in Africa, there was a need to focus on the NGO sector and

Safari is a web browser from Apple for the in-house operating system Mac OS X and has also been available for Microsoft Windows since June 11, 2007, initially as a beta version and since version number 3.1 as a stable version. The Zulu Nation is an organization founded by Afrika Bambaataa in the 1970s. It played an important role in the first years of hip hop: For the first time, the artistically active tried to organize themselves and thus to oppose the gang system. New York DJ Afrika Bambaataa came up with the idea of ​​founding a Zulu nation as a child. The occasion is the film Zulu with Michael Caine, who portrays the African nation of the Zulu through bravery and solidarity as a hero, which is in

the 1960s is still unusual. Furthermore, the Zulu nation forbade violence and drug use of any kind. B. do not smoke or drink. In the 1980s, many youngsters from the hip-hop scene joined the organization. The renunciation of violence was mainly noticeable among the BBoys (breakdancers), who only resolved their conflicts on the dance floor.

The term safari (za-fa-ri, from the Arabic safar, "journey") is

Benetton puts the spotlight on entrepreneurial Africa. Its global communication campaign for 2008 promotes the Birima micro-credit program in Senegal, a co-operative credit

women in the fight against HIV / AIDS. SWAA is committed to reducing the impact of HIV / AIDS on women and children in Africa. SWAA’s vision is to have a world free of HIV / AIDS where African Women can be empowered to claim equal rights and access to health care, education, economic and socio-cultural opportunities.

the common term in the Swahili language for a trip of any kind. It found its way into the German and English languages ​​of the former colonial rulers since the colonial times and was then mainly used to describe a hunting trip in East Africa, during which large game was usually killed.

society founded by the Senegalese singer Youssou N‘Dour. The program will also receive financial support from Benetton Group.


Briller et s‘envoler Astrid S. Klein * on Fashion in Kinshasa Airplane Brussels-Kinshasa February 2005

tion as a machine fitter is nowhere near enough. The paradox of the situation: The flight from Brussels to Kinshasa. In short, music at the time is viewed as the trade of Kinshasa where the passenger failures and bandits prepare; re on landing. Some Congo terms that were read in fancy designer outfits in the elitist colonial regime were certainly blown up, but take care of their wardrobe. They were common to denote fringe groups of everyone I have noticed for a long time (hemp smokers, len. I'm curious. A young man illiterate, unemployed, etc.), which is what most of the musicians are in an elegant black. Ensemble approaches in the narrow aisle When Franco was seventeen, he dressed past my seat. So he's already wearing you in the latest chic. Tropical helmet made of black, shimmering satin. Later, at the beginning of the sixties, the competition Lambert, Hubert and Mamie, who rated the group of Joseph Kabasélé friends from Kinshasa, told me about the “Grand Kallé”, the “African-Jazz Band”, “Mikiliste”, the Congolese, who came to the stage and the record market in Europe, and I'll start with Franco's group «OK Jazz". So to be interested in the sapeurs. the rivalry is not yet over, especially since its audience, characterized by one as La masque du anti-héros intellectuals and by the other as Paris, April 2006 ordinary people, also takes The Mask of the Anti-Hero party for the respective camp. The fan base is buzzing around this 1 Achille Ngoye has agreed. We meet outstanding bands: «Bana Amida», us for a conversation. In French. “Bana Ajès”, “Bana La Mode”, etc. You I get nervous. Misunderstood dancing nonstop to their concerts or incorrectly pronounced, that can stir up favorites, shine through quickly. Conversing with one of her «molato» (the chic of her clothes, writer also in a Lingala), just like the foreign language. A man of letters believers in a congregation for whom he turns words all day and puts on mass on Sunday morning in bowls. Who says he doesn't read anything, throw. The members of these fan clubs so as not to influence his language. deliver a merciless guy in his crime novels, his competition: "Romans Noirs", which gives anti-heroes a voice. Those whose lives you buy fabrics based on the screams drawn by the tragedy of the Congo and trust the net. A conversation with Ngoye, the best tailors in town, was born when the Congo-Kinshasa was still a Belgian colony and they give you precise instructions for a large part of the Congolese for the cut. Has witnessed music history through this. I would love to learn more about women in Kinshasa - competition make them fashion that becomes a must for any simple fashion. Experience sapeurs. I have read that in 1963 the music scene with which the SAPE under the dictatorship of Mobutu flourished independent dance clubs was a kind of counterculture of the youth ... a democratization takes place. In these clubs, which go by the name «jeunes - Taratata! Look: When the guitarist premiers »also flourish in Brazzaville, Franco Luamba-Makiadi in 1956 the band joined dandies in bell-bottoms« O.K. Jazz "founded, he beats himself up and shirts with high necks by his seventeenth year of age and collar, which" after bisque has a good living. smell », that is, they are perfumed. He rides a Vespa as a sign of his material prosperity at a time when the fan clubs let their middle-class clothing barely afford a bike for young tailors like William. My Nurumbi, Lajos Tail, Le Petit Prince, father was able to make the young Franco despite etc. Incidentally, these tailors with his diploma and professional experience create in the course of the

Unique stage outfits for the showmen from Kinshasa and their groups, including dancers, for the next ten years. I doubt it became a counterculture expression of dressing indigenously. Except, perhaps, that the abacost of the Belgian tailor Arzoni, in which the barons of mobutism puffed themselves up and which were sold in Brussels at exorbitant prices, were out of reach for them. The abacost - the word means «à bas le costume» («down with the western suit») - is a copy of Mao's jacket, perfected by the tailors in Kinshasa! Under the one-party regime, the propaganda machine hired the popular bands to lure the masses into the stadiums. So it wasn't Mobutu who filled the stadium, but it was these bands who subsequently increased their fees. Result: the party created its own «groupes choc d’animation» wrapped in African cloth that was printed with the portrait of the «founder-president» or his wife. Papa Wemba [International star of Congolese music who sees himself as the king of SAPE. d. Red.] Is not the founder of SAPE. It has to be admitted, however, that he relies on it and that he is their most famous representative. In Paris in the first half of the 1980s, the sapeurs posed either in front of "les Chaînes" ("the chains"), which were supposed to prevent people from crossing the Place de la République outside the pedestrian crossing, or in the area of ​​the Strasburg-SaintDenis metro. The flip side of the coin: In order to dress more luxuriously than his means would allow, the common sapeur, usually a young unemployed man or woman, stole goods in order to resell them and thus collect the necessary sum to purchase the dream piece . Not exactly a glory sheet! - Do the sapeurs invent themselves with their clothes and their style? - There's nothing inventive about it yourself

to dress with ready-made clothing if it eats the hair off your head. In short, the residents of the Congo spend a lot of money on clothes, jewelry, shoes and other accessories. I believe it is the reaction of the poor, the same reaction that a monsieur entrusted with an office often ends up disappearing with the cash register. When a poor man comes across a well-laid table, he would like to devour everything right away, although a piece of bread would be enough to fill him up. For me, the people who pound their nest egg on the head for showing off, suppress their humble origins or express the complex of the poor. There are better and less costly ways of showing that you exist. Papa Wemba didn't need a “complicated garment”, a super garment with which Jo Balard, the king of the SAPE of the eighties, flattered himself in order to make a career on the international stage. If he is called “Kuru yaka” (“Der Reife”, title of a CD by Papa Wemba the Elder]), it is because of his talent. And for nothing else.

exclusive external appearance, their rituals and their “successful” trip to Europe. This trip to Europe describes J.-D. Gandoulou as the initiation of the young sapeurs. Paris, Mecca of international fashion and paradise, was the destination of the “Aventuries”, the young sapeurs who emigrated, emigrated to “adventure”.

In order to become a radiant «Parisien», one had to acquire a collection of obligatory haute couture clothing during one's adventure in Europe. No matter by what means. Only then could you, as a successful “Parisien”, visit Kinshasa or Brazzaville and climb up the hierarchy. A triumphant return could only be considered once the furnishings were complete and respected by the most important Parisians. «Les Chaînes» - («the chains») on the Place de la Republique in Paris - were a legendary place for the sapeurs of the 1980s. Parisiens and Aventuriers from the Congo met here regularly to compete in their clothing.Nearby, at Tati around the corner, was the house of the Congolese - Achille Ngoye, Thank you very much for students - MEC, the most important was the conversation. (From the French contact point for newcomers. There by Katarina Grän.) One could live cheaply in mass camps under the most primitive conditions, meet friends, exchange news about Papaye from home and Paris, April 2006, received important information on how yellow is like papaya struck in Paris. These places were known in the Congo. After my conversation with Achille, if you had made the difficult trip to Ngoye, I continue researching the Europa, and if possible, you went to des Bakongo with Congolese sapeurs and the dandies as soon as you arrived in Paris. Movements that their «the chains». At the beginning of the 1970s in both states of the Congo, the In order not to appear as “zero”, today's Democratic Republic had to appear dressed for the first time in accordance with the Congo (capital Kinshasa) and the correspondingly dressed. In the Republic of the Congo (capital Brazzaville), friends who had been to Paris in the 1980s, and musicians like Papa Wemba and Jo Balard, would send you the right clothes to Brazzaville internationally for a fee. or Kinshasa before starting your journey. So it was for his arrival in The SAPE consisted almost entirely of young Parisians and the first assessment by Congolese men. They dressed the Parisiens armed. In Gandoulou's book, a young man counts himself according to certain rules with it (La Sapeur, what the equipment danse des griffes - The dance of the labels) had to include in order to be able to become a Parisien and delivered one another : J.-M. Weston competitions. In “Au coeur de la Sape - shoes or Capo Bianco, a suit Moeurs et aventures de Congolais à made of gabardine, also l'Huile or la Paris” (“In the heart of SAPE - customs called Gaba, a suit made of leather, and adventure the Congolese in a fur coat, a suit from Paris ») the author JustinLeinen examines a suit from Daim. Daniel Gandoulou this movement of the The preferred brands were: Dandyism very thorough. Since the sapeurs develop their own system of values ​​for their Armani, Cavalli, Valentino-Uomo, extravagant style - Hechter, Torrente, Yamamoto, Versace, ten, Gandoulou speaks of a Dolce + Gabana, Yves Saint Laurent. Subculture. It was based on a dominant system of material values, to the appearance of a Parisien as it belonged to the figure of the «Grand his complexion« jaune papaye »- Monsieur» the Congolese society «yellow like a papaya». For this bleached shaft was represented. In one the skin with harmful chemical exaggerated imitation of the external calories. Likewise, it was important to have a semblance of success that the Sapeure returned to wearing a certain current haircut to the general social hierarchy, to be clean-shaven and to become a scandalous fiction that made the expensive to perfume. The men's internal rules of SAPE followed. Without should have a small belly, i.e. education, studies or wealth, be well fed, like older ones, they were only distinguished by their well-to-do gentlemen of the upscale

Helvetia in Sub-Saharan strategic partner South Africa

By Philippe Kropf The whole world wants raw materials from Africa, including official Switzerland. However, it lacks a clear strategy. The Swiss multinationals, on the other hand, have traditionally been doing well. Sub-Saharan Africa or “Africa south of the Sahara” is the politically correct name for that part of the African continent that was previously called black Africa. The expression summarizes over 50 countries. In many of these countries the interests of political Switzerland coincide with those of the Swiss economy. Foreign markets secure jobs in Switzerland, Swiss companies import important raw materials such as oil from Angola or Nigeria and thus guarantee the national economic supply. Nigerian Oil Nigeria is the fourth largest supplier of crude oil to Switzerland and is therefore more important than Algeria or Russia. And oil that is extracted on the west coast of Africa does not need a pipeline but is transported to Europe in a tanker - without the threat of pirates. The global economy is interested in raw materials from Africa, for example diamonds, gold, platinum, tin, nickel, cobalt, uranium, coffee, cocoa, or tea

also flowers. Sub-Saharan Africa is also considered a market: in 2009, Switzerland mainly sold pharmaceutical and chemical products, machines and optics to the region worth over 1.5 billion francs. By far the most important trading partner is South Africa (see box). Chinese wake-up call Africa is a raw material supplier and a market at the same time, China has understood that and has been shaking up business for several years: The raw material-hungry Chinese economy pays high prices, sells its own products in Africa and creates political goodwill with the financing and construction of huge infrastructure projects. China is the largest foreign investor in Africa today - without asking questions about human rights.

Large Swiss companies such as Nestlé, Novartis, Roche, SGS or Barry Callebaut, on the other hand, hold strong positions where they identify “business opportunities”. But SMEs are also set to gain a foothold recently. The State Secretariat for Economic Affairs SECO has been promoting an investment program in Ghana and Madagascar since 2008. Africa in Switzerland

The ongoing polemic surrounding asylum seekers from Nigeria after the death of the Nigerian deportation prisoner Alex Uzuwulu in the spring of 2010 refers to the domestic political dimension of this region of the world. "The pressure from sub-Saharan Africa to migrate to Switzerland is great," the government stated in its 2009 Foreign Policy Report. At the same time, right-wing parties in parliament are increasingly promoting development cooperation «The Chinese commitment is putting them under pressure. The political consequence would change the post-colonial order and would be deportations instead of poverty, the international actors in the African genes were forced to reposition themselves, ”says Länder. The pirate attacks in front of Didier Péclard from Peace Research Somalia also show that the political institute swisspeace. For example, when it comes to trade in Africa, Switzerland is unable to find a clear long-term policy for Switzerland. The response of the EU gen strategy, despite its pioneering role in the attacks, has been the military operator development cooperation since Atalanta, the Swiss parliament in the 1960s. For too long, they didn't want to see or know anything about participation, but only rural Africa. Switzerland has left urbanization to other nations for years, and the sea routes are increasing rapidly. “The challenge of owning a deep-sea fleet in the Horn of Africa is to protect itself against these new conditions. to adapt ”, says Péclard.

By far Switzerland's most important trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa is South Africa: in 2009 Swiss companies exported goods worth 670 million francs. The strong Swiss presence has a long tradition - and is one of the gloomy chapters of the federal policy of neutrality. “Switzerland was a pillar of apartheid and a hub for circumventing UN sanctions,” says journalist and South Africa expert Jean-Michel Berthoud. Many large Swiss companies had branches in the Cape during racial segregation, and the three major Swiss banks temporarily bought over half of South African gold. Swiss parliamentarians supported the apartheid regime, the military and secret services cooperated. "After the end of apartheid in 1994, the Swiss economy waited and then reactivated its old connections," says Berthoud. This chapter was partially processed in a national fund project, but many company archives remained closed. In South Africa, too, people prefer to look to the future. The South African Ambassador George H. Johannes recently said in an interview with swissinfo.ch: “Today South Africa and Switzerland have very good relations. Switzerland is our fifth largest trading partner ».

Congolese society. In everyday urban life in Paris, the sapeurs looked for opportunities to pursue their rituals and exhibitionism. You present yourself and your extravagant clothes in elegant surroundings such as the Champs-Elysées or Place Vendôme, at concerts by important bands that quickly became «Defis», in special nightclubs and in places that were similar to meeting places for young people at home, such as «Les Chaînes». Social events of the Congolese community in Paris, weddings, baptisms and funerals, also served for self-presentation. Achille F. Ngoye, writer and journalist from Congo-Kinshasa, lives in Paris. He was the first African author from a country south of the Sahara to publish in the Série Noire at Gallimard. In Kinshasa in the 1960s and 1970s he was a chronicler of Congolese music and, as a cultural journalist, published the Congolese comic magazine “jeunes pour jeunes”.

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Book title: Kin-la-Joie Kin-la-Folie, 1993; Agence Black Bafoussa, 1996; Yaba Terminus, 1999; Ballet noir à Château-rouge, 2001. * Excerpt from the text “Briller et s‘envoler”, by Astrid S. Klein, who accompanies the artistic research of the same name. Published in “Les Histoires Communes” 2007, Künstlerhaus Stuttgart Astrid S. Klein, Stuttgart / Paris is a visual artist. At the center of her long-standing art project “Briller et s'envoler”, which she began in 2005 between Kinshasa and Paris, Astrid S. Klein examines the flowing character of identities in the globalized present and processes of re-invention of the self in urban cultures of the African Continent and Europe.


African music blogs

overview of music blogs

By Georg Milz * Anyone looking for contemporary sounds from the black continent can get lost in the online jungle. There are countless current music videos from African countries on the Internet. Blogs help you choose. And with theft. Probably the greatest success of an African club track so far, which was able to spread worldwide via the blogger scene on the Internet, is the song Township Funk by DJ Mujava. In 2008 a recording of the music video on Youtube, in which Mujava himself was seen as a homeless DJ and performed the craziest dance steps, was passed on from blog to blog. With over 500,000 clicks, the young DJ from one of the suburbs of Pretoria became a real internet hype. Warp Music in London got wind of it and released the song as a maxi single. The track with the shrill synth sounds on the dark house beat even made it into most of the annual charts of local DJs and might still be on the ears of some. In South Africa, where the song had been released two years earlier and House die

is the most popular music among the black population, the song was only a marginal phenomenon. The blogs turned an undergound hit from Pretoria into a global club hit for the first time. However, it remains questionable whether a new ideal has opened up for artists to promote themselves. Because even on the basic requirement for a presence in blogs, opinions differ: Music costs nothing here. Popklau with Radioclit One year after Mujava's success, the production and DJ team Radioclit, based in London, began to advertise their collaboration with Malawian singer Esau Mwamwaya online. They made a free mixtape available to the blogs for this, in which Esau's voice could be heard on beats from a wide variety of producers. One of the best tracks on the tape was the song "Wena Ng‘hamba Nawe" by house producer DJ Cleo from South Africa. Radioclit had added a few verses with Esau in his native language, Chichewa. In the difference

about DJ Mujava, every child in South Africa knows DJ Cleo. He has been a permanent guest in the South African charts since the mid-1990s and has a fan base that extends all the way to East Africa. When I meet him in the Sunnyside Office Park, an expensive office complex in Johannesburg where Miriam Makeba was already managed, he reacts annoyed to the English: of course, nobody had asked him. * Georg Milz has the CD «Ayobaness! - The Sound of South African House »and is co-operator of Out Here Records. On July 14th there will be a compilation on the subject of migration: “Yes We Can - Songs about Leaving Africa”.

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